CoNS isolates were submitted to a disc diffusion susceptibility test using the following antibiotics: penicillin (10 [micro]g), oxacillin (1 [micro]g), cefoxitin (30 [micro]g), erythromycin (15 [micro]g), clindamycin (2 [micro]g), rifampicin (15 [micro]g), gentamicin (15 [micro]g), ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), tetracycline (30 [micro]g), vancomycin (30 [micro]g), linezolid (30 [micro]g), ceftazidime (30 [micro]g), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (23.75/1.25 [micro]g) and novobiocin
Gentamicin (10 [micro]g), neomycin (30 [micro]g), novobiocin
(5 [micro]g), erythromycin (15 [micro]g), ampicillin (10 [micro]g), nitrofurantoin (300 [micro]g), tetracycline (30 g), and chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g; Laborclin) were the antimicrobials used in this study.
The applied antibiotic disks were Penicillin, Ampicillin, Amikacin, Gentamicin, Cefotaxime, Cefepime, Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Vancomycin, Tetracycline, Novobiocin
, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem, Cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin.
In brief 25 g of each sample was diluted in 225mL of modified tryptone soya broth (mTSB, Oxoid, UK), supplemented with novobiocin
. The samples were then homogenized and incubated for 18-24 h at 41.5AdegC.
perfringens, we found that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of kanamycin sulfate, minocycline hydrochloride, clindamycin hydrochloride, doxycycline hydrochloride, and novobiocin
were higher than those of the control strain.
The report of CST of the urine sample after 48 hours of aerobic incubation revealed the causative organism to be Proteus spp giving sensitivity (+++) to Amoxyclav, Amoxycillin/ Sulbactam, Ampicillin/Sulbactam, Ampicillin/ Cloxacillin, Amikacin, Cefoxitin, Ceftrioxone/ Sulbactam, Cefuroxime, Co-Trimoxazole, Ceftazidime/ Calvulanic acid, Cefoperazone, Cefoperazone/ Sulbactam, Cephalexin, Imipenem, Fusidic Acid, Gentamicin, Linezolid, Novobiocin
, Moxifloxacin, Enrofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Nitrofurantoin, Oxytetracycline, Pipracillin/ Tazobactam, Netilin, Meropenem, Rifampicin, Cefpodoxime, Tobramycin and Vancomycin.
All staphylococci isolates have been identified by conventional microbiology and differential tests including catalase production, coagulase activity, clumping factor, DNase production, blood agar hemolysis, and susceptibility to novobiocin
Ward et al., "The entropic penalty of ordered water accounts for weaker binding of the antibiotic novobiocin
to a resistant mutant of DNA gyrase: a thermodynamic and crystallographic study," Biochemistry, vol.
Bacitracin 338 Novobiocin
5 50 (CH) Cefazolin 15 2.5 (T) Vancomycin 5 2.5 (T) Vancomycin 5 2 (AB) Cefalotin 15 5 (T) Rifampicin 5 50 (CH) Brucella spp.
coli O157, 25 g of each sample was aseptically weighed and placed into a sterile Pulsifier plastic bag, 225 mL of sterile Modified Soyabean Bile Broth supplemented with novobiocin
at 20 mg/L (HiMedia Laboratories, India) was added, and an enrichment homogenate was made by treating with the Pulsifier for 30 seconds.
The naturally occurring coumarins such as novobiocin
, chlorobiocin, and coumermycin have been found to be an unprecedented class of antibiotics, specifically against Gram-positive bacteria .