Leaders in India are expected to nurture, protect, guide, support and care for subordinates (Sinha & Kanungo, 1997; Sinha & Sinha, 1990) and strictly ensure the pursuit and achievement of goals (see nurturant
task leaders in Sinha, 1980:54-71).
Witness the narrative fixation on her breasts: many critics have noted how this establishes Chandri as a nurturant
and life-sustaining Annapurna-like figure (goddess of grain and food) in the novel.
Results are discussed in light of biopsyschosocial pathways from nurturant
and challenging infant interactions to psychological, hormonal, and behavioral outcomes.
The potential for behavior-based conflict occurs when comparing the fan behaviors described above with those typically associated with membership in the family role, which Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) characterized a "warm, nurturant
, emotional, and vulnerable" (p.
The model specifies that "a nurturant
task leader takes care of his subordinates' needs, shows affections, allows them to depend on him and cultivate personalized relationships, gives directions and guidance, but makes all these contingent on their hard and sincere work.
Men's difficulty in expressing emotions is seen to have a number of adverse personal and social consequences for men's intimacy with women, their capacity for nurturant
fathering, their friendships with other men, and for themselves (Pease 2002a).
For instance, in discussing Skinner's baby tender, she explains that it was consistent with the 1950's "better-living campaign" and "economic prosperity and techno-fervor" but "incongruent with this more nurturant
approach" of Dr.
Fathers who were satisfied with parenting, contributed financially to the family, and were nurturant
during play had children with better cognitive and language competence," wrote Maureen M.
HARRIS, BEYOND HER SPHERE: WOMEN AND THE PROFESSIONS IN AMERICAN HISTORY 110 (1978) (in distinguishing women in the legal profession from doctors, Harris explains that "female doctors could claim that their careers were natural extensions of women's nurturant
healing role in the home, and that they protected female modesty by ministering to members of their own sex.
An Indian theory that also explains this phenomenon is the nurturant
task (NT) leadership proposed by Sinha (1980).
Market power and profitability can mute (less gender-typing of clerical aptitude and status in interaction) or heighten (more gender-typing of nurturant
31) See ROTHMAN, supra note 16, at 206 (stating that "[p]oor women, women of color, are often valued for their nurturant
qualities"); Roberts, supra note 25, at 66-67 (discussing racial implications of surrogacy).