Example (1a) is an Estonian neutral declarative sentence with the SVO word order, whereas in (1b) the interrogative pronoun questioning the object of the verb
occupies the left periphery and leaves behind an empty position.
"Whom" refers to the object of the verb
Upper Necaxa Totonac (33) ya:wa:nikan a?tin [tu: li:lakaltante:kan] ya:wa:--ni--kan a?--tin [tu: li:--laka--ltan--taya--kan [O.sub.SO]] stand-BEN--IDF CLF-one NREL INST-face-pull.taut-take--IDF __ 'They stood up against it something that they could use to pull it tight.' In (33), the head of the relative clause is the applied, secondary object of the verb
li:lakaltantaya 'X pulls Y taut with Z', formed from the verb lakaltantaya 'X pulls Y taut' with the instrumental applicative prefix li:-.
Dough is the direct object of the verb
; it's what is being tossed.
Thus, it is a common development in Semitic for pronoun objects on an independently occurring X + pronoun object (X = iyya, -l, -it) to become grammaticalized as a unit as a predicate suffix, marking the subject or object of the verb
. The complex -n + pronoun object was among the first of these: predicate + -n + pronoun object = object (proto-West Semitic, stage 3).
Is it the object of the verb
'to ask', or the subject of 'is calling'?
From a terminological point of view, Salvi and Vanelli (16) propose to consider verbs as transitive or non-transitive according respectively to the presence or absence of an argument that functions as direct object of the verb
. Subsequently, the authors divide the non-transitive into intransitives (17) and unaccusatives according to the auxiliary they select in compound tenses, avere and essere respectively.
All the most frequent and salient collocates as direct object of the verb
cause are negative: BNC(Sc) (damage, pollution, disease, problem, cancer, symptom, increase, difficulty, confusion, reduction, death, loss, concern), BAWE(PS) (problems, error, change, damage, decrease, noise, concern, pressure, interference, reduction, drag, failure, reaction, harm, distortion, negligence, resistance, instability).
Half a century later, usage commentators began arguing that since a college confers a degree upon a student, the student should be the object of the verb
graduate, not the subject performing the action.
The author cleverly compares the overt realization of the complement in verb periphrases with ne to the overt expression of the subject, which is only required in specific contexts, and the appearance of the complement in transitive verbs that can participate in transitive and intransitive constructions, and concludes that ne is a null-object marker, i.e., ne indicates that the object of the verb
need not be expressed.