From Figure 4(a), we see there are innumerable various plant leaves, but these leaves can be clustered into several similar classes by leaf shape description or similarity measure, such as Acerose, Linear, Gladiate, Ensiform, Oblanceolate
, Ovate, Oval, Obovate, and Elliptic.
indica becomes narrowly typified to plants Schultes saw in Afghanistan, with broad, oblanceolate
leaflets, densely branched, more or less conical in shape, and very short (< 1.3 m).
Stipules entire, persistent or deciduous, oblanceolate
Rhizomes long creeping, covered with membranous ovate-apiculate scales; rhizome scales comose in distinct grades on dorsal surface, bicolorous with a dark central streak of sclerotic cells and pale margins, which are denticulate to erose; blade lanceolate to oblanceolate
, basally pinnatisect and lobed to pinnatifid distally, with proximal lobe free; laminar scales scattered on abaxial surface and glabrescent on adaxial surface, with round to ovate scales with apiculate or caudate apices, center obscure brown, margins pale brown, fimbriate to ciliate; midribs and secondary veins not visible; sori oblong, with orbicular, peltate scales similar to those in the lamina; spores bilateral, abortive, prominently verrucate.
Also, the leaves of the latter species are oblanceolate
and possess a smaller length/ breadth ratio.
The petals are oblong to oblanceolate
, 3-4.5 mm long and have 15-17 free stamens .
Leaf blade length -- Centimeters (cm) (LBL) Leaf blade width -- Centimeters (cm) (LBW) Petiole length -- Centimeters (cm) Leaf apex shape 1.
Larger leaf sessile; blade asymmetric, oblanceolate
to narrow oblong, 13.5-25 x 2.9-5 cm, base oblique, apex long acuminate, margin dentate, adaxially green, sericeous, sometimes with sparsely white setulose (1-2-celled trichomes); abaxially totally reddish with deep purple on almost 1/2 of the apical foliar area, sericeous, trichomes more dense on the veins; 10-11 veins on the larger side of the blade.
Leaves 4.5-5 (-7.5) by 0.7-1 (-1.5) cm, crowded at base and along stem, oblanceolate
, sinuate-dentate or pinnatifid with acute lobes; lower leaves long-petioled, upper and floral sessile.
Leaves are opposite; petiole is absent or reaching 5 mm; leaf blade is elliptic to lanceolate or oblanceolate
, 6.5-12 x 2.1-3.3cm, papery to leathery, glabrous, adaxially drying wrinkled, abaxially sparsely punctate, base cuneate, margin crenulate and undulate, and apex acuminate; lateral veins are indistinct.
Rosette-leaves 2-6 x 0.4-1.7 cm; entire; elliptical, oblong, oblanceolate
or linear-oblanceolate; rounded-obtuse or slightly mucronate at apex and gradually narrowing towards base; adaxial surface green or lightly greyish, with some subrigid long simple eglandular trichomes and, in some leaves, with few to numerous stellate trichomes (absent in others); abaxial surface green to greyish-green or whitish, with few (or even absent in some leaves) to numerous (variable from one leaf to another) stellate trichomes and some long simple eglandular trichomes thinner than those of the adaxial surface; without glandular trichomes.
Perianth tube 4-5(-8) cm long; segments subequal, 3.5-5 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, oblanceolate
or obovate, obtuse.