. If the incident P-wave with the form of Equation (23) obliquely impinges on one side of the joint, wave propagation can also be calculated from Equations (13) and (14) and Equations (21) and (22).
The lexical morpheme of the inflected noun was followed by an inflectional morpheme, belonging to the set of the so-called Layer I markers, that assigned the noun to a declensional class and specified the opposition between nominative and oblique case
. (6) The Layer I marker distinguished also gender, number, and thematic status.
The dative-constituent is promoted to direct object, and the Patient is marked with the oblique case
. Applied to Eastern Mansi it means an accusative-inflected Recipient and an instrumental- inflected Patient:
Later on they were truncated in the absolutive and reinterpreted as oblique markers, and only used before the oblique case
A further strategy, involving the marking of the theme with an oblique case
, is found with verbs of deprivation: in several languages, including Modern Greek and Russian, the theme is marked by the genitive case, as in (67): Russian (67) Sud lisi-l Annu svobody.
Does not the oblique case
sometimes come after these verbs?
That is, it presupposes (since <'en> is the oblique case
form in a 3-term contrast in the grammars of dialects in which it occurs) that at some stage the reflex of <hine> took over all the functions of <him>.
The form e is used when the modified noun is marked for accusative (9a), or oblique case
and a Layer II marker (9b).
In all the constructions illustrated by the examples above (23-37), the second person pronoun must be interpreted as occurring in the oblique case
, because it functions as the direct object of the preceding finite verb (PRAY).
Here the oblique case
(C.OBL) appears on every element in the subordinate clause because that clause is an object argument of the matrix verb mungurru.
As to her analysis, Carling confirms earlier claims that the directional use of the oblique case
in Tocharian is an archaic and recessive usage reflecting the PIE "accusative of direction." Her most important original contribution is to have largely untangled the very complex functions of the Tocharian perlative and its relationship to the locative.
Arkadjev observes that in some of these languages (languages of the "distributing" type, in his terms) distribution of the direct case (as opposed to the general oblique case
) is problematic for the semantic map approach.