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In a relatively early examination of problems associated with skin lightening, Findlay, Morrison, and Stimson (1975) found that South African women who had used skin lightening products for an extended period suffered from exogenous ochronosis (Findlay, Morrison, and Stimson 1975).
The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that Hydroquinone is a hazardous substance and could cause side effects leading to ochronosis, the accumulation of melanin pigments in some tissues such as joints and cartilages, apart from skin allergies in most cases.
The World Health Organisation has reported that hydroquinone is a hazardous substance and could cause side effects leading to ochronosis, the accumulation of melanin pigments in some tissues such as joints and cartilages, apart from skin allergies in most cases.
Hydroquinone, usually found in skin- lightening products, certain cleansers and moisturisers, is another harmful drug which can cause ochronosis and hence leave ' disfiguring and irreversible' blue- black lesions on exposed skin.
5'6 Other rarer causes of ankle arthritis include primary OA, crystalline arthropathy, inflammatory disease, septic arthritis, neuroarthropathy, hemochromatosis, and ochronosis.
The word ochronosis refers to the dark bluish black discoloration of connective tissues including the sclera, cornea, auricular cartilage, heart valves, articular cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.
Ochronosis is a syndrome that is characterized by pigmentation of various connective tissues, including human cartilage, and is caused by high concentrations of homogentisic acid due to alkaptonuria (inherent homogentisic acid oxidase deficiency) [1, 2].
Exclusion Criteria: Patients with exogenous ochronosis and males were excluded from the study.
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an extremely rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by a triad of homogentisic aciduria, arthritis, and ochronosis, affecting only 2–5 in a million individuals.
Ochronotic pigment is a black-appearing pigment that accumulates in tissue in association with the autosomal recessive condition of ochronosis.
Using them without consulting a doctor can result in hyperpigmentation or ochronosis, a bluish black discolouration of the skin.