Although parkinsonism [3, 4], tardive dyskinesia , tardive dystonia [5, 6], hemifacial dystonia , and oculogyric crisis
 have been reported to be caused by clebopride, acute cervical dystonia has not been observed in adults treated with this drug.
([double dagger]) EPS includes bradykinesia, cogwheel rigidity, drooling, dystonia, extrapyramidal disorder, glabellar reflex abnormal, hypokinesia, muscle rigidity, oculogyric crisis
, oromandibular dystonia, parkinsonism, psychomotor retardation, tongue spasm, torticollis, tremor, and trismus.
Some of the most serious EPSEs that may be seen on the medical-surgical unit are involuntary muscle spasms (dystonias) of the neck (also called torticollis), the eye muscles (oculogyric crisis
, in which the eyes are locked in an upward position), and the airway (potentially life-threatening due to obstruction) (Keltner & Steele, 2015).
Table 18: Incidence of EPS Compared to Placebo in the Monotherapy Bipolar Depression Study LATUDA 20 to 60 80 to 120 Placebo mg/day mg/day (N=168) (N=164) (N=167) Adverse Event Term (%) (%) (%) All EPS events 5 12 20 All EPS events, excluding 2 5 9 Akathisia/ Restlessness Akathisia 2 8 11 Dystonia * 0 0 2 Parkinsonism ** 2 5 8 Restlessness <1 0 3 Note: Figures rounded to the nearest integer * Dystonia includes adverse event terms: dystonia, oculogyric crisis
, oromandibular dystonia, tongue spasm, torticollis, and trismus ** Parkinsonism includes adverse event terms: bradykinesia, cogwheel rigidity, drooling, extrapyramidal disorder, glabellar reflex abnormal, hypokinesia, muscle rigidity, parkinsonism, psychomotor retardation, and tremor Adjunctive Therapy with Lithium or Valproate
Other SSRI-related adverse effects include mydriasis, increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and oculogyric crisis
. These effects are few in number but pose a risk with SSRIs.
In treatments by typical antipsychotics, oculogyric crisis
is not a side effect seen rarely.
A similar search of Pubmed only identified nine case reports of olanzapine-induced TDt: Aggarwal and colleagues  report on a 17-year-old female with schizophrenia who developed symptoms of TDt after 15 months of treatment with olanzapine; Charfi and colleagues  report on a 17-yearold female with schizophrenia who manifested TDt symptoms after nine months of treatment with olanzapine; Singh and colleagues  reported on a case of TDt after using a single 10 mg dose of olanzapine; Aggarwal and colleagues  report on a case of delayed Meige syndrome (a combination of blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia) after long-term usage of olanzapine; and Praharaj and colleagues  report on a young male patient who developed delayed oculogyric crisis
following the use of olanzapine.
is a neurologic impairment defined by bilateral dystonic, commonly upward, conjugate eye movements.