differentiation of human dental pulp cells in explant cultures.
Therefore, purpose of this prospective study was to examine the expression levels of VEGF and CD68 in the rat dental pulp to elucidate their role on vascular angiogenesis, inflammation and odontoblast
differentiation in pulp tissue depending on the possible damage of diabetes.
However, the genotype, phenotype, or cell responses in these in vitro models could differ from actual odontoblast
cell responses due to genetic changes  or environmental adaptations of the cell lines, which complicates the interpretation of cytotoxicity results.
Properties such as water sorption, solubility, and release of hydroxyl ions (pH) are related to the ability to maintain an alkaline state, which is necessary to regulate odontoblast
mineralization , and impact resistance is detrimental to mechanical strength under compressive forces during tooth function [2, 10].
The dental pulp is isolated from the lesion by the defensive response of a mature odontoblast
, which produces secondary and reparative dentin in response to external physiological and pathological stimuli.
Bracnhes of this vascular network connects its arterioles and venules under the odontoblast
layer and venules leave pulp using the same apical foramen (33,34).
Yang, "Effects of hydrogen peroxide ([H.sub.2][O.sub.2]) on alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization of odontoblast
and osteoblast cell lines," Cell Biology and Toxicology, vol.
: A mechano-sensory cell," Journal ofExperimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, vol.
A detailed screening on PRP components demonstrates that platelet-derived growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 promote cell proliferation; acidic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor 2 promote extracellular matrix synthesis; TGF-[beta], platelet-derived growth factor, acidic fibroblast growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor are involved in DPSCs odontoblast
Calcium hydroxide - once considered the standard for pulp-capping material - provides an option for reparative dentin formation, but long term studies have shown results were variable and somewhat unpredictable.4 The material does not provide close adaptation to dentin, does not promote consistent odontoblast
differentiation and has been shown to be cytotoxic in cell cultures; the resultant reparative dentin formation can be characterized by tunnel defects.6,7 Tunnel defects within dentin bridges may provide a pathway for the penetration of microorganisms to activate circulating immune cells, induce pulpal irritation and produce subsequent dystrophic calcification.6