extinction

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ex·tinc·tion

 (ĭk-stĭngk′shən)
n.
1.
a. The act of extinguishing: The extinction of the fire took several hours.
b. The condition of being extinguished: mourned the extinction of her dreams.
2. The fact of being extinct or the process of becoming extinct: the extinction of the passenger pigeon; languages that are in danger of extinction.
3. Psychology A reduction or a loss in the strength or rate of a conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus or reinforcement is withheld.
4. Physiology A gradual decrease in the excitability of a nerve to a previously adequate stimulus, usually resulting in total loss of excitability.
5. Astronomy The dimming of celestial objects, usually measured in magnitudes, due to scattering and absorption of their light as it passes through interstellar dust clouds and the earth's atmosphere.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

extinction

(ɪkˈstɪŋkʃən) or

extincture

n
1. the act of making extinct or the state of being extinct
2. the act of extinguishing or the state of being extinguished
3. complete destruction; annihilation
4. (General Physics) physics reduction of the intensity of radiation as a result of absorption or scattering by matter
5. (Astronomy) astronomy the dimming of light from a celestial body as it passes through an absorbing or scattering medium, such as the earth's atmosphere or interstellar dust
6. (Psychology) psychol a process in which the frequency or intensity of a learned response is decreased as a result of reinforcement being withdrawn. Compare habituation
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

ex•tinc•tion

(ɪkˈstɪŋk ʃən)

n.
1. the act of extinguishing.
2. the state of being extinguished or extinct.
3. the act or process of becoming extinct: the extinction of a species.
4. the reduction or loss of a conditioned response as a result of the absence or withdrawal of reinforcement.
5. the darkness that results from rotation of a thin section to an angle (extinc′tion an`gle) at which plane-polarized light is absorbed by the polarizer.
[1375–1425; late Middle English < Latin]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.extinction - no longer active; extinguished; "the extinction of the volcano"
inaction, inactiveness, inactivity - the state of being inactive
2.extinction - no longer in existenceextinction - no longer in existence; "the extinction of a species"
death - the absence of life or state of being dead; "he seemed more content in death than he had ever been in life"
3.extinction - the reduction of the intensity of radiation as a consequence of absorption and radiation
absorption - (physics) the process in which incident radiated energy is retained without reflection or transmission on passing through a medium; "the absorption of photons by atoms or molecules"
natural action, natural process, action, activity - a process existing in or produced by nature (rather than by the intent of human beings); "the action of natural forces"; "volcanic activity"
scattering - the physical process in which particles are deflected haphazardly as a result of collisions
4.extinction - complete annihilationextinction - complete annihilation; "they think a meteor cause the extinction of the dinosaurs"
annihilation, disintegration - total destruction; "bomb tests resulted in the annihilation of the atoll"
5.extinction - a conditioning process in which the reinforcer is removed and a conditioned response becomes independent of the conditioned stimulus
conditioning - a learning process in which an organism's behavior becomes dependent on the occurrence of a stimulus in its environment
6.extinction - the act of extinguishingextinction - the act of extinguishing; causing to stop burning; "the extinction of the lights"
ending, termination, conclusion - the act of ending something; "the termination of the agreement"
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.

extinction

noun dying out, death, destruction, abolition, oblivion, extermination, annihilation, eradication, obliteration, excision, extirpation Many species have been hunted to the point of extinction.
Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002

extinction

noun
2. The act or fact of dying:
Slang: curtain (used in plural).
The American Heritage® Roget's Thesaurus. Copyright © 2013, 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Translations
إخْمادإنْقِراض
slukninguddøenudryddelse
sukupuutto
kialváskihalás
aldauîi, útrÿmingslokknun
vyhasnutie
izumrtje
sön metükenmeyok olma

extinction

[ɪksˈtɪŋkʃən] Nextinción f
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005

extinction

[ɪkˈstɪŋkʃən] nextinction f
to face extinction → être menacé(e) d'extinction
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

extinction

n (of race, family, animal, species, tribe)Aussterben nt; (= annihilation)Ausrottung f; threatened with or faced with or in danger of extinctionvom Aussterben bedroht; this animal was hunted to extinctiondiese Tierart wurde durch Jagen ausgerottet
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007

extinction

[ɪksˈtɪŋkʃn] n (of fire) → estinzione f, spegnimento; (of race) → estinzione f
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995

extinct

(ikˈstiŋkt) adjective
1. (of a type of animal etc) no longer in existence. Mammoths became extinct in prehistoric times.
2. (of a volcano) no longer active. That volcano was thought to be extinct until it suddenly erupted ten years ago.
extinction (ikˈstiŋkʃən) noun
1. making or becoming extinct. the extinction of the species.
2. the act of putting out or extinguishing (fire, hope etc).
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.

ex·tinc·tion

n. extinción; supresión; cesación.
English-Spanish Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
References in classic literature ?
Of species themselves, except in the case of such as are genera, no one is more truly substance than another.
Wallace, who is now studying the natural history of the Malay archipelago, has arrived at almost exactly the same general conclusions that I have on the origin of species. Last year he sent to me a memoir on this subject, with a request that I would forward it to Sir Charles Lyell, who sent it to the Linnean Society, and it is published in the third volume of the Journal of that Society.
In considering the Origin of Species, it is quite conceivable that a naturalist, reflecting on the mutual affinities of organic beings, on their embryological relations, their geographical distribution, geological succession, and other such facts, might come to the conclusion that each species had not been independently created, but had descended, like varieties, from other species.
I will then pass on to the variability of species in a state of nature; but I shall, unfortunately, be compelled to treat this subject far too briefly, as it can be treated properly only by giving long catalogues of facts.
In the four succeeding chapters, the most apparent and gravest difficulties on the theory will be given: namely, first, the difficulties of transitions, or in understanding how a simple being or a simple organ can be changed and perfected into a highly developed being or elaborately constructed organ; secondly the subject of Instinct, or the mental powers of animals, thirdly, Hybridism, or the infertility of species and the fertility of varieties when intercrossed; and fourthly, the imperfection of the Geological Record.
No one ought to feel surprise at much remaining as yet unexplained in regard to the origin of species and varieties, if he makes due allowance for our profound ignorance in regard to the mutual relations of all the beings which live around us.
This and other eighteenth-century definitions of species have gone through a sea-change since the advent of the theory of evolution.
Disease transmission cycles are composite phenomena that represent interactions between sets of species: hosts, vectors, and pathogens.
The new version presents some compelling reasons to take the plan seriously: Pleistocene rewilding could restore lush ecosystems, curb Lyme disease, and provide a bold alternative to failing models of species conservation around the world.
In Hawaii, the antics of environmentalists are becoming the primary cause of extinction of species as money wasted on critical habitat listing will not be available to grow the plants in reserves where they have some chance of surviving."
Yet each year thousands of species, ranging from the smallest microorganisms to larger mammals, are lost forever.
A theory called the "molecular clock" states that mutations occur at a steady pace across time, regardless of species. However, the NHGRI studies indicate that the genomes of rodents are mutating faster than those of primates, carnivores, or artiodactyls (a type of ungulate).