Emulsion activity of proteins depends basically on two effects; a substantial decrease in interfacial energy due to the adsorption of the protein at the oil-water interface
and the electrostatic, structural and mechanical energy barriers caused by the interfacial layer that oppose destabilization processes .
Different area of drilling wells in the oil reservoir is considered as oil-water layer if the sand body was on top of the oil-water interface
and characterized by middle amplitude curve type; the thickness of the middle amplitude curve segment is the oil layer thickness (Figures 1(c) and 11, Qx110-36).
Whey protein can act as an emulsifier that forms nanometer-thick rigid layers at the oil-water interface
and can provide stability against coalescing oil droplets.
As more copies of the target DNA are produced, they move towards the oil-water interface
, resulting in measurable changes in surface tension.
Small amount of Span 80 assisted in reducing the interfacial tension between 011 and water and in acquiring tighter molecular packing between the surfactant molecules at the oil-water interface
. The phase-forming behavior of the PKOEs: fullerene/Tween 80: Span 80/water system at three different mixed surfactant ratios (MSRs) of 9: 1, 8:2, and 7: 3 at 298 K is presented in Figures 1(b), 1(c), and 1(d), respectively.
The reason is that surfactants and associating polymers have the strong interaction and oil-water interface
diffusion rates of surfactants which are significantly affected.
The most attractive applications of biosurfactants are related to the oil industry to aid clean up, may be added to reduce the interfacial tension at the oil-water interface
and increase the solubility of petroleum (GRISHCHENKOV et al., 2000; O'CONNOR, 2002).
Moreover, it is broadly used to lower the interfacial tension at oil-water interface
and used to generate monodispersed and nano-sized or submicro-sized droplets or particles [26-29].
It also increases the surface area of the oil-water interface
, where the microbes live that consume the oil for energy, so it also increases the biodegradation rate.
Because periodic low frequency vibration waves intensify the contact of the surfactant solution and the oil in the oil-water interface
, the crude oil is packaged by more surfactant molecules, forming organized O/W molecular assemblies; furthermore because of more surfactant-packaged oil, the concentration of the surfactant solution in the interface decreases which results in the spread of surfactant from internal surfactant solution to oil-water interface
so that more crude oil is emulsified.
Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolases; EC 126.96.36.199) catalyze the hydrolysis of triglycerides at the oil-water interface
Surfactants will absorb at an air-water or oil-water interface
and at the surface of a solid.