He then became a magician, a draftsman with Archaeological Survey of India, later as printer specialising in advanced lithography and oleography
, set up his own printing press and travelled to Germany for advanced knowledge in the field.
These include the pedagogy of the colonial art school that put value on perspective; mass production of images; acquaintance with European pictures circulating in the Indian market; the arrival of the techniques of engraving, lithography, and oleography
; the development of photography and later of cinema, technologies that presented an exceptional experience to the viewer--of encountering a differently graded sensuous landscape and an almost tangible, individualized human figuration.
As the new realist conventions became more widespread, picture makers had to adapt their woodcuts to compete with colour lithography and oleography
. Mukherjee summarises the situation: "By the 1870s, the popular art market in Calcutta was invaded with the new kinds of standardised mass-produced 'realistic' pictures with glossy colour and texture, which ultimately drove the Kalighat and Battala pictures out of the market" (113).