The eastern tropical Pacific Ocean encompasses areas of upwelling and oligotrophy
(Fiedler and Talley, 2006), and this oceanographic variability produces diverse zooplankton prey assemblages (Fernandez-Alamo and Farber-Lorda, 2006).
The Mediterranean is characterized by a plethora of phenomena of relevance not only for the climate of the region but also for impacts on ecosystem and society: among others, heavy precipitation events, flash floods, Mediterranean cyclones and associated strong winds, strong air-sea exchanges and associated open-sea deep-water formation, aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions, Mediterranean surface circulations, Mediterranean dense water formation and associated Mediterranean thermohaline circulation, droughts, heat waves, medicanes, strait transports, and Mediterranean Sea oligotrophy
and dynamic of the deep chlorophyll maximum.
At our site, soil oligotrophy
was caused by a combination of historical low soil fertility, immobilization of nutrients in the large and fast growing pine biomass (Berthrong, Jobbagy, & Jackson, 2009), and by litter recalcitrance to decomposition delaying nutrient cycling, all common traits of pine plantations (Cavalier & Tobler, 1998; Craine & Orians, 2004; Gomez, Paolini, & Hernandez, 2008; Leon, Gonzalez, & Gallardo, 2011).
They have also been cited as highly tolerant to different environmental conditions, and some species (Discostella pseudostelligera, Stauroneis smithii, Sellaphorapupula and Surirella splendida) present preferences for oligotrophy
(Jewson et al.
If this were the case, climate perturbations resulting from massive volcanic events associated with LIP formation induced oligotrophy
over wide areas of the ocean, with imbalance of the surface-water nitrate/phosphate ratio caused by water column denitrification.
The most important loss of fixed nitrogen from the ocean due to denitrification occurs in OMZs (Codispoti, 2007), and the westward migration of nitrate-deficient surface waters further intensifies the oligotrophy
of the SPSG.
Sclerophylly and oligotrophy
environments: relationships between leaf structure, mineral nutrient content, and drought resistance in tropical rain forest of upper Rio Negro region.
This value, however, was close to the upper limit of oligotrophy
and nitrogen fixation during Eastern Mediterranean sapropel events.
Data did not match the assumptions for the [chi square]-test for swamps and oligotrophy
at a distance of 250 m from built-up areas.
In some circumstances these communities are highly enriched in Helianthemetea guttatae com panion species, namely in situations of great oligotrophy
and/or very shallow soils where Poa bulbosa has not reached its maximum dominance or does not have conditions to develop.
Most species with ECY are tropical; extra energy reserves may buffer planktotrophic larvae against the oligotrophy
conditions of tropical waters, In lecithotrophic species, ECY may be a response to selection for post-settlement fitness benefits of larger offspring (Marshall el a