Chemical control which include synthetic fungicides such as metalaxyl spray are among the most widely used methods, however, they are ineffective to new strains of the oomycete
produced as recombinants of fertilization (Axel et al., 2012).
Furthermore, glyoxylic acid and its derivatives are widely used across the various industries for different application such as reducing agent for electroless copper plating, visual detection of biogenic amines, and derivative for oomycete
Raizada, Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete
Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew, Front Microbiol, 9, 42 (2018).
In those cases in which the disease is severe, the oomycete
may also affect the tubers causing tough and dark rot of these structures.
It is caused by a fungus-like organism (Oomycete
) and spreads from plant to plant through airborne spores.
Economic losses caused by the oomycete
pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, in soybean production is estimated to be $1 to 2 billion worldwide.
Phaseoli bacterium for inhibition assay Fusarium graminearum Plant pathogenic PH-1 fungus for inhibition assay Rhizoctonia solani Plant pathogenic R251 fungus for inhibition assay Pythium irregulare Plant pathogenic oomycete
for inhibition assay Pythium ultimum Plant pathogenic oomycete
for inhibition assay Table 2: Promotion of corn shoot and root growth by twelve Bacillus strains in three greenhouse pot experiments.
Kamoun S, Furzer O, Jones JD, Judelson HS, Ali GS, Dalio RJ, Roy SG, Schena L, Zambounis A, Panabieres F, Cahill D, Ruocco M, Figueiredo A, Chen XR, Hulvey J, Stam R, Lamour K, Gijzen M, Tyler BM, Grunwald NJ, Mukhtar MS, Tome DF, Tor M, Van Den Ackerveken G, McDowell J, Daayf F, Fry WE, LindqvistKreuze H, Meijer HJ, Petre B, Ristaino J, Yoshida K, Birch PR, Govers F (2015) The top 10 oomycete
pathogens in molecular plant pathology.
Jones et al., "The Top 10 oomycete
pathogens in molecular plant pathology," Molecular Plant Pathology, vol.
An ancestral oomycete
locus contains late blight avirulence gene Avr3a, encoding a protein that is recognized in the host cytoplasm.