operant conditioning


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operant conditioning

n. Psychology
A learning process in which the likelihood of a specific behavior increases or decreases in response to reinforcement or punishment that occurs when the behavior is exhibited, so that the subject comes to associate the behavior with the pleasure from the reinforcement or the displeasure from the punishment.
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Noun1.operant conditioning - conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
conditioning - a learning process in which an organism's behavior becomes dependent on the occurrence of a stimulus in its environment
instrumental conditioning - operant conditioning that pairs a response with a reinforcement in discrete trials; reinforcement occurs only after the response is given
References in periodicals archive ?
The training methods militaries use are brutalization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and role modeling.
* Operant conditioning. The third method is called operant conditioning, which the military and law enforcement community have used to make killing a conditioned response.
One of his most important findings was that of "operant conditioning." Behavior, he noted, is shaped by consequences.
While Hirschhorn explains this example in psychoanalytic terms, other psychological theories, such as operant conditioning and social learning theory, may represent alternative explanations.
Today, simple operant conditioning thrives in classrooms.
A trainer, in effect, is vulnerable to a type of operant conditioning, where the reinforcing events are improvements in the performance and/or happiness of trainees" (Bjork, 1994, p.
Skinner established the principles of operant conditioning, he tested the effect of distractions on the new behaviors of his rats.
Any discussion of rewards and punishments brings to mind the operant conditioning paradigm, a second topical area dealing with the asymmetrical effects of rewards and punishments.
Operant conditioning occurs when a behavior becomes more frequent, or the motivation to engage in it become stronger (or both), because that behavior has been rewarded.
"...the semantic reaction formulation could serve as a 'bridge'...between Pavlovian classical conditioning and Skinnerian operant conditioning." (Silverman)
Since that first experimental demonstration, peak-shift has been observed in several species after operant conditioning with various rewards and punishers Purtle, 1973).
For example, some children can be trained to fixate visually through operant conditioning. The infant's need for low-vision aides (e.g., eyeglasses) should be determined as early as possible.