While you have operantly
taught her a happy bee-behavior, you also have changed her classical association with the presence of a bee: "Bees make the opportunity for my fun behavior happen!"
It is true that some of the elements of visual and auditory stimuli (e.g., lines, edges, motion, pitch, timbre, and loudness) that we learn to perceive (i.e., operantly
respond to) may indeed be hardwired in the sense that specific neurons "detect" these features and fire (i.e., the stimulus features are sensed or transduced), in the absence of operant contingencies involving these elements.
Long-term memory of an operantly
conditioned respiratory behaviour in Lymnaea stagnalis.
conditioned running: effects on brain catecholamine concentrations and receptor densities in the rat," Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, vol.
Eaton and coworkers  showed that in monkeys the firing rates of motor cortical neurons and muscle activity can be operantly
reinforced through the delivery of rate-contingent stimulation of the ventral striatum.
A parsimonious behavioural explanation of the findings is that in the Puff + Blink condition, tic behaviour was operantly
reinforced by the reduced subjective annoyance of the puff, fostering the perseverance of blinking.
conditioned motoneuron plasticity: possible role of sodium channels, " Journal of Neurophysiology, vol.
conditioned running:effects on brain catecholamine concentrations and receptor densities in the rat.
Mice and rats can be trained to respond operantly
at a fixed ratio for infusions of ethanol or for access to a drinkable ethanol solution.