The preventable causes of blindness include corneal scarring due to vitamin A deficiency, measles, ophthalmia neonatorum
, application of harmful traditional eye medications and infective corneal ulcers.
TABLE 1 Reaffirmed USPSTF recommendations (1) A recommendations * Administer prophylactic ocular topical medication to all newborns to prevent gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum
, * Screen all pregnant women for syphilis infection early in their pregnancy.
In high-income countries, lesions of the optic nerve and higher visual pathways predominate as the cause of blindness, while corneal scarring from measles, vitamin A deficiency, harmful traditional eye remedies, ophthalmia neonatorum
, and rubella cataract are the major causes in low-income countries.
Due to suspicion of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum
, a full septic workup was obtained including CBC, blood culture, urine analysis and culture, CSF analysis and culture, and left eye swab for culture and Chlamydia antigen (Table 1).
(8) In the eye bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens can produce severe disorders like conjunctivitis, keratitis, blepharitis, corneal ulcers and are one of the causes of ophthalmia neonatorum
for the infants which may lead to the loss of an eye when being untreated sufficiently.
The major preventable causes of childhood blindness are vitamin A deficiency, measles, ophthalmia neonatorum
, and the harmful use of traditional eye care methods.
Other skin lesions found were petechiae (1), purpura (1), sclerema (1), loss of subcutaneous fat (1), hypospadiasis (1), generalized edema (1), ophthalmia neonatorum
(1), micrognathia (2), lentigines (1), simian crease (2), umbilical hernia (1), prominent veins (1), hairy pinna (1), hydrocele (1), phimosis (1), insect bite (1), cleft lip and cleft palate (1) , cellulitis (1), scrotal dermatitis (1), triangular face (1).
However, 27 (41.53%) infants had respiratory tract infection, 3 (4.62%) had diarrhea, 3 (4.62%) had ophthalmia neonatorum
, and another 3 (4.62%) had malaria.
(neonatal conjunctivitis) can be easily prevented with prophylactic administration of topical antimicrobial drugs, as recommended by global guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections (1).
In infants, MRSA infection also should be included in the differential diagnosis of ophthalmia neonatorum
(46) The most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis (ophthalmia neonatorum
) is chlamydia (6.9 cases per 100,000 live births) and can result in a rapidly progressing, severe eye infection that is associated with pneumonia.
. Pediatr Clin North Am 1993; 40(4): 715-725.