An inflammation of the cranial arteries (cranial arteritis or giant cell arteritis), which is characterised by the fragmentation of the tunica interna and the presence of giant multinucleate phagocytic cells, can cause profound visual loss when it affects the ophthalmic artery
. Principally, the vascular supply to the optic nerve head by the posterior ciliary arteries is disrupted leading to optic neuropathy.
Previous studies showed that a 90% carotid stenosis can reduce the ipsilateral central retinal artery perfusion pressure by approximately 50% [1-4] and as the degree of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis increases, the flow in ophthalmic artery
Since the ophthalmic artery
is the first branch of the internal carotid artery, embolic material from the heart and carotid arteries has a fairly direct route to the eye.
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) examination was performed to assess the major ocular vessels (i.e., ophthalmic artery
, central retinal artery, and posterior ciliary artery), including the degree of stenosis and haemodynamic changes of the arteries.
The ophthalmic artery
, which is responsible for the orbital blood supply, is a direct branch of the internal carotid artery and is part of the shunt between the internal and external carotid arteries.
Donato et al., "Color Doppler imaging of ophthalmic artery
blood flow velocity: a study of repeatability and agreement," Ophthalmology, vol.
Facial lesions around the midline have bilateral arterial supply, forehead lesions are usually supplied by supraorbital branch of the ophthalmic artery
, as well as by the branch of external carotid artery Pi.
In the article titled "Relationship between the Direction of Ophthalmic Artery
Blood Flow and Ocular Microcirculation before and after Carotid Artery Stenting" , there was an error in Figure 6.
When the definitive ophthalmic artery
differentiates as a branch from the terminal part of the internal carotid artery it communicates with supraorbital branch of stapedial artery, distally this becomes the lacrimal artery.
H0rven, "Ophthalmic artery
pressure during retrobulbar anaesthesia," Acta Ophthalmologica, vol.
For example, one specimen was prepared to show ophthalmic artery
crossing optic nerve from lateral to medial side (figure no.
A study at Bascom Palmer on 12 eyes of 10 children with advanced RB (Reese-Ellsworth stage Vb or International Classification Group D)  demonstrated that eyes receiving ophthalmic artery
melphalan for 9 months showed no tumor progression at the 6-month follow-up visit.