Impaired barrier functions of the intestines decrease the opsonization
activity of the humoral immunity and bacteriostatic capacity Therefore, microorganisms in the intestines pass the mucosal barrier and reach the liver spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby disrupting the functions of the immune and reticuloendothelial systems [3-6].
(17) These risk factors define the induction, progression, and results of the disease insofar as several of them produce leukocyte dysfunction, reduced chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and opsonization
Cell-mediated immunity in arthropods: hematopoiesis, coagulation, melanization, and opsonization
. Immunobiology, 211: 213-223.
In the case presented by the authors, IgM type autoantibodies lead to agglutination and hemolysis of erythrocytes by adhering to erythrocyte surface with complement (C3b) opsonization
at low temperature (3-4 [degrees]C) in cold antibody AIHA (cold agglutinin disease) which the authors were focused on and which frequently occurs secondary to infections (1, 2, 4, 5).
Specific antigens for Th17 cells can improve neutrophil performance with the generation of antibodies for opsonization
of staphylococcal strains.
Cell-mediated immunity in arthropods: hematopoiesis, coagulation, melanization and opsonization
. Immunobiology 21 1:213-236.
Both IgG3 and IgG4 can cause bacterial opsonization
, but IgG4 differs from IgG3 in that it cannot activate the complement.
PEGylation, for example, reduces nonspecific protein adsorption to biological membranes thus preventing flocculation and opsonization
and subsequent complement activation [20-23].
Patients without a spleen have an impaired phagocytosis and opsonization
, as well as decreased levels of immunoglobulins.
Several immune functions have been proposed for C-type lectins, including cell adhesion, glycoprotein turnover, activation of prophenoloxidase cascade, hemocyte-mediated nodule formation, encapsulation, and opsonization
(Zhang et al.
(24) The Donath-Landsteiner antibody is an IgG class antibody that binds at low temperatures, where it fixes complement to the RBCs, then the cells are hemolyzed at warmer temperatures owing to the opsonization
This process starts with the opsonization
of the particle and the subsequent involvement of the complement receptors.