Furthermore, the ending of Mother India can be seen as a general triumph of orality
, since all the main characters fulfil their vows: Birju, by reconquering his mother's bangles, destroying Sukhi and his knowledge and trying to kidnap Rupa; Radha, by sacrificing her own son to the honour of the village; and Ramu, by fighting for his mother's vow.
In the field of medieval French studies, before Orality
, there was the Formula, and before that, there was nothing, just texts badly written.
Wohlwend); (2) Invisible Ink: A Psychoanalytic Study of School Memory (Lisa Farley); (3) Imaginary Stories in School: First Steps towards Literacy (Gillian Dowley McNamee); (4) In Defense of Playfulness (Peter Nelsen); (5) Mouthy Students and the Teacher's Apple: Questions of Orality
and Race in the Urban Public School (Alyssa D.
and Literacy was a landmark work in 1982.
Organized in two distinct sections ("Orality
, Literacy and Performance" and "Writing Orality
"), the twelve essays collected in this volume represent a selection of the proceedings from a 2002 conference held at the University of London.
What was the relationship between orality
and performance, between orality
and social status and gender?
These reasons loosely break down into three categories: authenticity and (mis)attribution, orality
and usefulness, and content.
The book deal with these issue in four sections, namely "Old Wisdom and New Orality
", "Verbal Images and Visual Images: Theatre and Performance", "Grassroots Communication: Song and Music" and "Urban Spaces: Video, Film and Popular (Print) Media".
Conference organiser Dr Wyn James said: "While papers need not be restricted to any particular subjects but may address any issue of concern to scholars of ballads and traditional song, we particularly encourage presentations that treat one or more of the following themes: language and identity; ecology and the natural world (plants, animals, birds, etc.); gender; ballads and the industrial revolution; performance and orality
; broadsides and print culture."
Walter Ong writes about the different ways orality
and literacy organize the human mind.
Liz Gunner provides the opening contextualizing and programmatic chapter on orality
. The author makes a strong case for accepting orality
in Africa as a creative means of exceptional diversity, longevity and adaptability, by which widely differing societies managed to effectively organize and regulate themselves.
The study of orality
in written texts is explored in African Literature by both writers and critics.