The convention prohibits the new application of listed anti-fouling systems and it imposes a requirement that organotin
biocides be removed from hulls or over-coated to prevent leaching (Note: to date, the only listed substance is TBT and any new ones added--Annex 1 substances--would also have the requirement to remove or overcoat).
The development of male characteristics, including a penis and vas deferens, in females of prosobranch gastropods is called "imposex" (Smith, 1971) which is mainly caused by organotin
compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT).
Pot A contains the epoxy resin, TEOS, and coupling agents, whereas Pot B contains the hardener (amine mixture), water, ethanol, organotin
catalyst, and molybdate salt (when applicable).
Maritime Organisation (IMO) Anti-Fouling Systems (AFS) Convention." The convention was adopted by the IMO in October 2001 and bans the use of anti-fouling paints containing harmful organotins
, such as organotin
tributyl tin (TBT), on ships and requires parties to ensure that proper disposal of wastes containing anti-fouling compounds."
This syndrome is caused by tributyltin (TBT) or triphenyltin (TPT), toxic organotin
compounds found in naval paints used as antifouling system in boats and artificial structures (Gibbs and Bryan, 1987 and Axiak et al., 2003).
Specific topics include the reproductive toxicity of mercury, cadmium, and arsenic; reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotin
compounds; adverse effects of aluminum, uranium, and vanadium on reproduction and intrauterine development in mammals; intrauterine and reproductive toxicity of nutritionally essential metals; lead exposure and its effects on the reproductive system; impact of metals on ovarian function; epidemiological and occupational studies of metals in male reproductive toxicity; and use of metal reproductive toxicity data in selecting ecological toxicity reference values for small mammals inhabiting hazardous waste sites.
The organisation also points out that ships being scrapped contain asbestos, and organotin
, such as tributyltin (TBT) for which industrialised countries' laws require an inspection authority and protective measures for eyes and lungs during work.
Tel: 01483 426333 www.ortepa.org/ For information on organotin
The Commission has stated its intention to include this question in its Communication on the Community strategy on chemical products currently under preparation;- at the request of Austria, the Council will consider the suspected prpresence of organotin
compounds and in particular tributyltin (TBT), a highly toxic compound, in napkins.
Considerable attention has been paid to organotin
complexes in recent years, owing to their wide applications in various fields like catalysis, biotechnology, analytical and medicinal chemistry [1-5].
Specialty Therm-Chek organotin
stabilizers offered for PVC, ABS/PVC, and other polymer blend applications.
The commonly used thermal stabilizers for PVC can be classified into four categories as follows: (1) inorganic metal salts, particularly lead metal; (2) metal soap, or other salts of organic acids, particularly calcium, zinc, barium; (3) organotin
compounds; (4) auxiliary thermal stabilizers, particularly phosphites, [beta]-diketone, and antioxidants (5).