In addition to ornithophily
and chiropterophily, there are also records of pollination of Bromeliaceae by butterflies, bees, and beetles (Benzing, 2000; Kessler & Kromer, 2000; Canela & Sazima, 2005; Siqueira Filho & Machado, 2001; Schmid, Schmid, Zillikens, & Steiner, 2011).
The present study documents the northernmost observation of ornithophily
yet reported in North America, as well as the first observations of nestling mortality due to biting black flies in the Arctic Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius).
We recorded hummingbird visits to 51 plant species, considering subspecies and varieties separately (Table 1), of which 43.1% (N = 22) were ornithophilous, 29% (N = 15) were mellitophilous, 14% (N = 7) were entomophilous, four species (8%) presented intermediate attributes between chiropterophily and ornithophily
syndrome, one (2%) species was chiropterophilous and one (2%) species was sphingophilous (Appendix 1).
Explosive flower opening in ornithophily
: a study of pollination mechanisms in some Central African Loranthaceae.
Gottschling 2006: Evolution of funnel-revolver flowers and ornithophily
in Nasa (Loasaceae).
salaccensis: Chiropterophily and ornithophily
. Biotropica 23:151-158.
Chiropterophily and ornithophily
in Freycinetia (Pandanaceae) in Samoa Plant Evolution and Systematics 144:277-290.
The pollination syndromes encountered in the plant community included: melittophily (65.2%), phalenophily (13%, including here flowers pollinated by sphingids and nocturnal moths), chiropterophily (11%), ornithophily
(6.5%), as well as cantharophily and psychophily (4.3% each).