To directly address this, we first orthogonalize
the PP management variable with respect to information asymmetry, corporate governance, and insider characteristics employed in Section V and reexamine the association between management trades and abnormal returns using residuals from the linear projections (Residual PP Management Trades).
M-B against ROE because they are correlated.
In order to do so, we orthogonalize
the structural residuals in the model by imposing restrictions on the [[beta].
Since the reduced-form residuals are correlated and cannot be interpreted as structural shocks, a block-recursive structure is imposed on the contemporaneous relationship between the reduced-form residuals and the structural innovations to orthogonalize
One could also choose to orthogonalize
the solution against the nullspace inside the algorithm, but in our experience the performance results are similar.
Discrete expressions for the evolutionary spectrum based on the HHT are deduced, and the Gram-Schmidt method is used to orthogonalize
the EMD components to avoid energy leakage during the analysis of the typhoon's evolutionary spectrum.
these variables using the Stata command Orthog.
Given these results, we orthogonalize
investment to correct for the effects of energy exports and economic freedom, with "energy" coming first.
the effects of women borrowing on portfolio yield by regressing portfolio yield on women borrowers and retaining the residuals.
For the matrix H to orthogonalize
the errors, it must be the case that the elements of the resulting vector [v.
Cholesky decomposition is used to orthogonalize
the shocks by placing enough restrictions to identify the system (the VAR is originally under identified).
23) In contrast to Petkova (2006), we do not orthogonalize
the innovations since the [R.