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n. pl. or·thog·ra·phies
1. The art or study of correct spelling according to established usage.
2. The aspect of language study concerned with letters and their sequences in words.

or·thog′ra·pher, or·thog′ra·phist n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
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OWYHEE, or Hawaii, as it is written by more exact orthographers, is the largest of the cluster, ten in number, of the Sandwich Islands.
In the opening chapter, Parsons lays the groundwork for his argument by mining the letters of the orthographer and etymologist John O'Donovan, one of the key contributors to the survey, to illustrate "the paradox that is at the center of the survey's work" (68), namely that even as it enacts imperial and epistemic control, so too does it exemplify the slippage of such controls under the divergent possibilities of local, oral, and folkloric histories.
The close imbrication of writing and painting in these years was noted by some of Hanson's contemporaries like the orthographer John Hart, (5) as well as by sundry modern scholars.