The patient's 24-hour urine osmolality
was 79 mOsm/kg, and it increased to 98 mOsm/kg; he lost 5.2% of his weight after 7-hour water deprivation test.
Blood gas, electrolyte, and select biochemical and hematologic values were analyzed by using a point-of-care analyzer, and complete blood cell counts and osmolality
Increases in osmolality
stimulate thirst and result in increased fluid intake.
It has been suggested that the AVP hypersecretion plays a critical role in the BE formation, leading to vasospasm, water retention, dilutional hyponatremia, and low plasma osmolality
Modified diets, including the use of thickening agents, should be monitored with respect to viscosity and osmolality
when provided to infants with dysphagia.
Osmol uses a small 20 pL sample size and can measure the osmolality
of body fluids--including whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, feces, sweat, and tissue homogenate.
The serum osmolality
test showed hyperosmolarity with inappropriate low urine osmolality
Result Reference interval Sodium, mmol/L (ISE) 123 135-145 Total protein, g/dL 5.7 6.5-8.0 Triglycerides, mg/dL (a) 250 44-133 Cholesterol, mg/dL (a) 1807 120-230 Osmolality
, mosm/kg 294 290-300 Calculated osmolality
, mosm/kg (b) 262 290-300 Sodium, mmol/L (DSE) 138 135-145 (a) Conversion factors for SI units: triglycerides mg/dL x 0.011 = mmol/L; cholesterol mg/L x 0.026 = mmol/L.
Human and murine urine typically have a slightly acidic pH and the osmolality
can vary [26, 27].
Corrected sodium was calculated to be 158 meq/L, anion gap 32, delta gap: 2, and serum osmolality