The wide range of its geographical distribution, from Western Atlantic in Gulf of Mexico (20[degrees]N) to Argentina (41[degrees]S) (Volpedo & Cirelli, 2006; Froese & Pauly, 2017) and an effective osmoregulatory
system (Diaz et al., 2008) allows this species to use a variety of habitats, such as estuaries, bays, coastal lagoons and the inner continental shelf.
The decrease in the RBC count may be due to the increase rate of erythrocyte destruction in the hematopoietic organ or due to the inhibition of erythropoiesis, haemosynthesis or osmoregulatory
dysfunction (Vani et al., 2011).
In the present study, we examined gill tissues because they are a major osmoregulatory
organ (Vemberg and Vernberg, 1972; Mangum and Towle, 1977; Willmer, 2006; Rivera-Ingraham etal, 2016) and are commonly used for studying transcriptomic responses to salt stress in intertidal molluscs (Hofmann and Somero, 1995; Gracey et al., 2008; Lockwood and Somero, 2011; Zhao et al., 2012; Meng et al., 2013).
(2012) classified main histological alterations observed in fish gills captured in metal contaminated Egyptian rivers into three reaction patterns: (1) circulatory disturbs, which include aneurisms, lamellar blood congestion and hemorrhage; (2) proliferative cellular responses, which include hyperplasia, hypertrophy and fusion; (3) osmoregulatory
responses, which include epithelial lifting, dilation and interstitial edema.
A range of metabolic variables, including glucose, lactate, total protein, amino acids, lipids, triglycerides, and hemocyanins, in addition to osmoregulatory
capacity, have been proposed as indicators to monitor the physiological responses of crustaceans to various stressors.
Horner reported prolactin to have a role in MD by its effect on osmoregulatory
mechanisms.6 Together with growth hormone, prolactin is now considered a major stress-induced hormone.
The capacity of proline accumulationdepending upon the level of stress and also can vary from one species to another species up to many foldin respect of control (Hayat et al., 2012 and Verbruggen and Hermans, 2008).Now a day, it is established that the accumulation of proline within plants under adverse or stress conditions play a significant roles for developing stress tolerance capacity and act as an osmoregulatory
compound (Hare and Cress, 1997).Heat stress, salt stress and heavy metal stress is another important abiotic stress (Anaytullah et al., 2012; Munns and Tester, 2008 and Siddique and Dubey, 2017) whichinversely affect the crop growth in term of biomass and yield of crop (Ahmad et al., 2012; Mantri et al., 2012 and Karur et al., 2012).
Temperature effects on osmoregulatory
physiology of anadromous fish.
Nonreducing sugars were predominant in the soluble sugar concentration, denoting their probable osmoregulatory
function in forage sorghum leaves.
Aegla genus have been studied in relation to several aspects, including seasonal variations in intermediate metabolism (Oliveira et al., 2007), sexual maturity and mating behavior (Oliveira and Santos, 2011; Almerao et al., 2010), metabolic (Ferreira et al., 2005; Oliveira et al., 2003) and intracellular osmoregulatory
profile (Faria et al., 2011).
Combined effects of photoperiod and salinity on growth, survival, and osmoregulatory
ability of larval southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma.