osmotic pressure


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Related to osmotic pressure: osmotic potential

osmotic pressure

n.
The pressure exerted by the flow of water through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions with different concentrations of solute.

osmotic pressure

n
(Chemistry) the pressure necessary to prevent osmosis into a given solution when the solution is separated from the pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane

osmot′ic pres′sure


n.
the force that a dissolved substance exerts on a semipermeable membrane, through which it cannot penetrate, when separated by it from pure solvent.
[1885–90]

osmotic pressure

The pressure that must be applied to a solution, when separated from a more dilute solution by a semipermeable membrane, to prevent the inflow of solvent molecules.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.osmotic pressure - (physical chemistry) the pressure exerted by a solution necessary to prevent osmosis into that solution when it is separated from the pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane
physical chemistry - the branch of chemistry dealing with the physical properties of chemical substances
force per unit area, pressure, pressure level - the force applied to a unit area of surface; measured in pascals (SI unit) or in dynes (cgs unit); "the compressed gas exerts an increased pressure"
hypertonicity - (of a solution) the extent to which a solution has a higher osmotic pressure than some other
hypotonicity - (of a solution) the extent to which a solution has a lower osmotic pressure than some other
References in periodicals archive ?
The concentration of NaCl required to obtain the osmotic pressure of -0.3 and -0.6 MPa was calculated by the van't Hoff equation (HILLEL, 1971): [PSI]s = -RTCi, where [PSI]s is the osmotic pressure (MPa); R is the ideal gas constant (0.008314 MPa [mol.sup.-1] [K.sup.-1]); T is the absolute temperature (273.15 + [degrees]C); C is the concentration in molarity of the solute (mol [L.sup.-1]); and i is the van't Hoff factor, the ratio of amount of particles in solution to the amount of formula units dissolved [i.e., for NaCl this value is 2.0 (Na+ and [Cl.sup.-])].
Eqn 3 is more of an 'energy balance' than a 'mass balance' and its origin lies in Van't Hoff s equation: [pi] = nRTc, where tt is osmotic pressure (Pa), n is the degree of dissociation (dimensionless), R is the gas constant (J [mole.sup.-1] [K.sup.-1]), T is temperature (K) and c is the concentration of solutes (mole [m.sup.-3]).
Both of the above situations were unfavorable for PS core to form sufficient osmotic pressure to crack the PUB shell and the PS core could not protrude by swelling.
On the other hand, fructose was used as control to count for the osmotic pressure variable, though it shows effect on the cell proliferation at a time.
Which the osmotic pressure contribution [[sigma].sub.s] ([[pi].sub.b]-[[[pi].sub.i]) is small (Stohrer, Boucher, Stangassinger, & Jain, 1995; 2000), Equation 5 reduces to Equation 6:
Xu obtained the curve of the softening branch of shaft lining concrete under hydraulic coupling; however, the constitutive model established only considered the single factor of confining pressure and ignored the influence of osmotic pressure, which obviously cannot explain the problem adequately [13].
Osmotic pressure could be adjusted from 0.1 MPa to 0.5 MPa using a pneumatic pump.
Effect of Hemodialysis on Plasma Osmotic Pressure and Blood Biochemical Parameters (Table 2).
Shale with semipermeable membrane properties is present in the concentration gradient, which will produce corresponding chemical osmotic pressure. The chemical osmotic problem in clay-rich shale is relevant to geophysics, environmental science, civil engineering, petroleum industry, and so forth.
Low levels can be insufficient to modulate blood flow or osmotic pressure, while excessively high levels can have a negative restrictive effect on blood flow.
20 [micro]l supernatant has been taken by centrifuging the sperm conserved in Hank's solution for 5 minutes at 12,000 rpm and its osmotic pressure has been measured in micro osmometer device.
Concentration gradients of dissolved solutes create osmotic pressure across semi-permeable membranes.