IGF-1, as a growth factor with high content in bone, plays an important role in regulating osteoclast proliferation and differentiation, osteocyte
function, bone metabolism, etc.11 IGF-1 may be closely related to the generating process of osteoporosis.7 ET-1, as a vasoconstrictor peptide, is closely related to the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells.
As much as 3.2x[10.sup.4] cells/[cm.sup.2] were cultured in a 9.2cm dish with a Stempro[TM]Chondrocyte/ osteocyte
differentiation medium (ThermoFisher Scientific).
death can be observed in irregular lacunae (black arrowheads).
(2008) Mechanical stimulation of bone in vivo reduces osteocyte
expression of Sost/sclerostin.
number decreased significantly (p<0.001) on the day 7 as compared to the cell count on day 5.
Bonewald, "The role of the osteocyte
in bone and nonbone disease," Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol.
Atkins, "Extracellular phosphate modulates the effect of 1[alpha], 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25D) on osteocyte
like cells," The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol.
Previously the effects of iron on bone metabolism and osteocyte
function have been observed18.
Early in CKD (stage 2), the osteocyte
begins to produce increased levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and by CKD stages 3a and 3b the levels are >1 000 times increased.
, osteoclast, osteoblast, fibroblast and newly formed vessel counts were calculated by Analysis 5 Research (Olympus Soft Imaging Solution, Munster, Germany) software.
Corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis, which possesses the characteristic of decreasing bone formation, promoting osteoclastic resorption, impairing bone cell survival, and strengthening adipocytic differentiation, may be largely attributed to osteoblast and osteocyte
apoptosis, rather than necrosis [24, 29, 30].
Bone Microstructure and Direct Visualisation of Osteocyte