The MRI scan illustrated scoliosis and arthritic changes that included facet arthropathy L2-S1, disc space narrowing at multiple levels in conjunction with mild osteophytic
spurring, disc space narrowing at L5-S1, and mild degenerative endplate changes.
They represent pathological changes of muscle and ligament attachments, which may be osteophytic
Extensive resection of the cartilage leads to poor compliance of the chest, and permanent cartilage loss is associated with restrictive lung disease, chest fixation at the resected sites, calcification, osteophytic
growth and in some, acquired asphyxiation chondroplasty.
The Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system was used for classifying radiographic signs: grade 1, questionable narrowing of joint space and possible osteophytic
lipping; grade 2, definite osteophytes and possible narrowing of joint space; grade3, moderate multiple osteophytes, definite narrowing of joint space, some sclerosis, and possible deformity of bone contour; and grade 4, large osteophytes, marked narrowing of joint space, severe sclerosis, and definite deformity of bone contour .
An MRI scan was undertaken which showed right-sided cervical foraminal stenosis (with uncovertebral and facet joint osteophytic
changes at C3/4 and C4/5) (Figure 3).
[15,16] Intercondylar notch was found to be stenotic in knees with severe osteoarthritis due to osteophytic
growth in notch,  thus increasing incidence of ACL ruptures in patients with degenerative arthritis.
Furthermore, chronic throat symptoms , back pain , Brown-Sequard syndrome , Horner syndrome , intracranial hypotension [29, 30], chronic obstructive pneumonia , traumatic thoracic aortic rupture , esophageal perforation , and acute urinary retention  have been described as osteophytic
Evidence of DDD, including osteophytic
lipping, porosity, and pitting of the vertebral surfaces was categorized as A, B, C, or D.
Grahovac, "Histomorphological analysis of the osteophytic
appositions in patients with lumbar lateral recess syndrome," Collegium Antropologicum, vol.
The K-L scoring criteria use a scale from 0to4 and is defined as follows: 0 = normal; 1 = questionable narrowing of joint space and possible osteophytic
lipping; 2 = definite presence of osteophytes, definite narrowing of joint space; 3 = moderate multiple osteophytes, definite narrowing of joint space, some sclerosis, and possible deformity of the bone contour; 4 = large osteophytes, marked narrowing of joint space, severe sclerosis, and clear deformity of the bone contour.
Care must be taken to remove osteophytic
bone around the acetabulum before dislocation is attempted.
There are various degenerative conditions which may lead to thoracic stenosis such as thickening or OLF, facet joint hypertrophy, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, ventral disc protrusion or osteophytic