The X-ray changes that are considered to be pathognomonic and found in almost all patients are dia-metaphyseal osteosclerosis
bilaterally and symmetrically in the tubular bones of upper and lower extremities.
was not observed in any of the patients in the study however focal bundles of osteosclerosis
were occasionally seen in the reticulin stain of the index case.
CT is superior in demonstrating the degree of bone resorption, osteosclerosis
, cortical bone swelling, destruction, and calcification (7).
However, if plain radiographs reveal reactive bone formation and osteosclerosis
, CT is further indicated since it provides high sensitivity and precision, which are the key features for future treatment.
Osteopetrosis is characterised by general osteosclerosis
, sometimes only some long bones are involved mainly proximal femur, pelvis and proximal tibia.
X-ray of bone was performed on the proband and his mother, but no osteolysis, osteosclerosis
, or cortical thickening were found, and only joint contractures and intestinal tympanites were observed in the proband [Figure 3].
The characteristic feature of malignant infantile osteopetrosis (MIOP), an autosomal recessive disorder, is the decreased activity of osteoclasts leading to generalized bone osteosclerosis
The hallmark feature, as was the case in our patient, is symmetric osteosclerosis
in the diametaphyseal regions of the long bones with relative sparing of the axial skeleton and epiphyseal regions .
The images revealed bony fusion primarily in the lateral joint, [sup] and the glenoid fossa was fused with the condyle via osteosclerosis
in the presence of a decreased or absent bone marrow cavity.
Endemic fluorosis in Pakistan was first reported in Kalalanwala, Kasur district, in July 2000, when more than 400 local inhabitants were diagnosed with bone disease which included osteosclerosis
, arrest of bone growth and calcification at the site of tendon insertion.
Finally, a computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of a cystic tumour with surrounding osteosclerosis
located just below the periosteum (Fig.
Bony trabeculae were assessed as either normal, osteosclerotic, osteopenic, or with mixed osteosclerosis