of lamina dura is the first sign of metabolic changes in the bone (O'Ryan et al., 2009).
The child, Mayed Al Baloushi - who suffers from osteosclerosis
, a disorder that is characterised by abnormal hardening of bone and an elevation in bone density - even surprised his doctor after he abandoned his crutches.
Since the analysis in this study was performed retrospectively, the follow-up showed no influence of other possible causes of low signal, such as fibrosis, osteosclerosis
, bone islands, or tumors.
Radiographic features of syndrome include osteosclerosis
of skull, vertebra and facial bones, broad ribs and clavicle, short or absent middle phalanges and defective skeletal maturation.7
The clinical manifestations of long-term increased PTH have been documented to range from a decrease in bone density to debilitating conditions such as osteosclerosis
This causes a mutation in cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease, which is highly expressed in osteoclasts, and causes osteosclerosis
due to decreased bone resorption .
Cleidocranial dysostosis may be confused with pyknodysostosis due to the hypoplasia of the clavicle; however, osteosclerosis
is not seen in patients with cleidocranial dysostosis but with pyknodysostosis [22, 23].
Osteitis appears as increased osteosclerosis
involving the trabecular infrastructure of cancellous bone in response to the underlying inflammation [9, 15].
Unlike other HR types, osteosclerosis
in the base of skull and calvarial bones may occur (62).
The X-ray changes that are considered to be pathognomonic and found in almost all patients are dia-metaphyseal osteosclerosis
bilaterally and symmetrically in the tubular bones of upper and lower extremities.
However, it is worth mentioning that other studies about patellofemoral unit surgeries indicated that there was a relationship between the preoperative PFA and the subsequent postoperative osteosclerosis
of the unit.
Stage II skeletal fluorosis is associated with chronic joint pain, arthritic symptoms, slight calcification of ligaments, and osteosclerosis
of cancellous bones .