Even within the family, the severe internal discipline of inner-direction had evaporated, since informed parents realized that the possession of an inner-directed personality would actually be a liability to their children in a brave new other-directed
Miller's conclusion is that for example, both our own other-directed
and Aristotle's inner-directed accounts of moral virtue are "true" in the sense that each is part of a consistent worldview (or moral language) and that neither would be undermined by knowledge of the "facts" on which the other bases its contrary assertions.
The article argues that the distinction between first-person present and other-directed
contexts of justification throws new light on epistemology.
On Martin's construal, such "taking" involves the recognition of epistemic norms constraining representation, and a thoroughly naturalistic approach to representation prima facie seems unable to accommodate such normativity; hence, Fichte postulates episodes of abstract intellectual agency as explanantia for states of other-directed
The transition from self-interested prudence to other-directed
morality--what makes life good for others or for society as a whole--is made possible because prudential values "enter the very conception of human being" (p.
But concocting that "better" version of ourselves can be hard on us, too: Turkle believes that Facebook encourages what sociologist David Riesman called the "other-directed
life," wherein a person measures their own worth through what others think.
Riesman's (1961) concept of the "inner-directed" and "other-directed
" personalities is suggestive.
Hence, this factor was named other-directed
In "The Lonely Crowd," the American sociologist David Riesman identified three broad cultural types: tradition-directed cultures that look to inherited rituals, morals and values for guidance; inner-directed cultures, in which people behave according to self-nourished values; and other-directed
cultures that react predominantly to external norms and peer influences.
He also cites the historian Bertram Wyatt-Brown, whose Honor and Violence describes in some considerable detail a "primitive" and "fighting" sense of honor that is "other-directed
" (that is, responding to the opinions of onlookers) rather than "inner-directed" (that is, based on parental and church training in right and wrong).
While Reisman had multiple theories, the characteristics of the other-directed
theory relates to Rockwell's advertising campaign's influence over other-directed
(2002) linking individuals to the environments they inhabit sheds light on the personality judgment based on environmental cues which are self-directed identity claims, other-directed
identity claims, interior behavioral residue, and exterior behavioral residue.