As such, altruism may create feelings of entitlement because it encourages out-group
children to see the family firm leader as having the responsibilities of a parent--to care and provide for the child--as opposed to the responsibilities of a boss.
58%), leaving the out-group
hostility unaffected (28% vs.
Channels of out-group
familiarity revealed the role of newspapers and news channels as the major one in forming their attitudes about Israel and Jews.
Using categories created based on demographic attributes, an individual then identifies in-group and out-group
members (Tajfel & Turner, 1986).
When colleagues act in a Machiavellian, manipulative way towards others in an out-group
, team members assume that those same standards could apply to in-group behavior if the conditions are right.
While the institutionalized hierarchical structure of social relations details proper behavior toward in-group members, no clear behavioral definitions or values exist with regard to out-group
Their central idea is that ethnocentrism and out-group
avoidance function as a kind of behavioral immune system.
Prejudice representing an implicit attitudinal form of out-group
bias is becoming increasingly difficult to elicit with standard measures; however, recent national interests (e.g., September 11, 2001; the Iraq War; and current immigration issues) have indirectly provided an opportunity to examine ethnic prejudice, which is labeled as perceived threat (Hitlan, Carrillo, Zarate, & Aikman, 2007).
While climate change is a phenomenon that must be tackled globally, one of the most urgent things to be addressed in Lebanon is what Karaki refers to as the "in-group and out-group
" bias, in which blame is placed on other communities, or even factors such as the refugee crisis.
The legitimizing discourse works rhetorically to validate the policy actions and ideals of the in-group while on the same time delegitimizing the out-group
. As communication primarily requires language to get the message across, language is used as the major tool to put forward ideological positions as utilized by Zia and Musharraf on Afghanistan issue.
The young will eventually become the old and will move from the in-group (young group) to the out-group
(old group) (Chonody & Teater, 2016).