Look around and notice how we create in-groups (to which we belong) and out-groups
(the other) when navigating the world.
We can't escape from a basic fact: there is a "deep human predisposition to divide the social world into in-groups and out-groups
The first question to be asked is how different is anti-Muslim prejudice from a general prejudice towards out-groups
in a population?
are basically "them", anyone we perceive as not being part of our in-group - not one of "us".
What discourse that does occur in shared spaces is often hostile and anonymous further contributing to the "othering" of the out-groups
In-group bias (Tajfel, 1969; Turner, 1982; Wann & Grieve, 2005) posits that a fan of intercollegiate football may identify supporters of their favorite team as an in-group, and supporters of all other fans within their affiliated conference as various out-groups
In terms of applying the SDT perspective to immigration issues, it has been suggested that individuals high in SDO perceive immigrant groups and ethnic minorities as inferior out-groups
(Pedersen, Attwell, & Heveli, 2005).
Neo-liberalism has turned livelihood increasingly precarious (linking the marriage crisis to that of the male provider), while neo-nationalism has solidified divides between in-groups and out-groups
Such differentiation has the added impact of malting it easier to harm members of out-groups
since it removes or diminishes moral or normative prohibitions against harming others.
He indicted a culture that politically oppressed unprotected out-groups
Conversely, employees in out-groups
are often described as not aligning with their leader's personality traits and goals.
One aspect may be collectivists' sharp distinction between members of in-groups and out-groups