This allows SFMC to retain some of the profitable tertiary services that otherwise could out-migrate
Hence, the aspiration to out-migrate
is essentially construed as the outcome of social processes.
Neither scenario is good, and both would have a negative impact on current housing values, not to mention the ability to sell here and out-migrate
to either developable farmland or more moderately priced communities in Nebraska, Kansas, Texas or wherever.
On the other hand, poverty could also hinder the decision to out-migrate due to higher costs associated with it.
The residents in poor, deprived and under developed regions/areas are expected to out-migrate. The proportion of external and internal migrants is highest in Khyber-Pakhtunkhawa and Punjab provinces respectively (see Table 9).
In the face of increasing rural-urban drift where men out-migrate
in search of cash income, it is often women who manage the everyday complexities of sustaining livelihoods, livestock, and environments.
Pull factors--which often directly mirror push factors--are destination country conditions that motivate nurses to out-migrate. Common pull factors include enhanced compensation (Ross, Polsky, and Sochalski 2005; Dussault and Franceschini 2006), the nursing shortage in destination countries (Stilwell et al.
However, many nurses are also unemployed (Adano 2008), which further contributes to nurses' intent to out-migrate (Arudo 2008).
In recent years, a group of researchers have raised concerns about the potential negative effects of migration on the educational outcome of the school-aged children that are left behind in rural areas when one or both of their parents out-migrate to cities for work.
First, we compare the distribution of children's scores across different types of households (migrant and non-migrant households) and over time (before and after one or both parents out-migrate).
Because new arrivals are most likely knowledgeable of their preferred CMA and select a CMA of residence as opposed to the province, the multivariate analysis focuses only upon the household's decision to out-migrate
from a CMA or to stay.
These requests are generated after a nurse has conveyed his or her intent to out-migrate
to an outside employer, who in turn requests verification of licensure from the NCK.