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or out-group  (out′gro͞op′)
1. A group of people excluded from or not belonging to one's own group, especially when viewed as subordinate or contemptibly different.
2. A group of organisms not part of the group under consideration, used for comparison when analyzing phylogenetic relationships.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
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In general, the BSE proposes that when an ingroup member does something bad, he will be evaluated more negatively than an ingroup member who does something good, or than any outgroup member regardless of his behavior.
Scientists discovered that it happens because white people lack eye contact with the black, as the former regard the latter as being different to them (part of the so-called 'outgroup').
The mt genome sequences of seven species of Amblyseiinae and one outgroup species were retrieved from GenBank (Table II).
For students of color in (PWIs), the low numeric representation of peers and faculty members of color may create a context of stereotype threat in which they are reminded that members of their group are not equally represented, where their academic work is consistently being evaluated by outgroup members who may be perceived as having implicit biases, and where the social comparisons to their peers may also highlight identity differences (e.g., London et al., 2014; Mendoza-Denton, et al., 2002).
The very existence of the Israeli Palestinian Arabs (outgroup, minority, or subculture) is often viewed as both a physical and political threat to the Jewish Israelis, the ingroup or what is considered by law as the mainstream dominant society (Shapira, Kupermintz, & Kali, 2016; Shonfeld, Hoter, & Ganayem, 2013; Zezelj, loannou, Franc, Psaltis, & Martinovic, 2017).
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), according to Fairclough (2013), is a methodological tool that examines text to trace power misuse in the construction of social reality.5 Since text is never neutral, actors in a text are embedded either as agents, activists, beneficiaries, enemies, etc., or disguised, collectively or individually, as ingroup ('we') or outgroup members ('they').
D00353) was used as the outgroup. B) Medium RNA segments (42-4,346 bp).
Fintan O'Toole, in his "The Irish Times," enumerates the identification marks of Fascism in shaping: fear of an 'outgroup,' mutually exclusive polarities, creation of 'alternative facts,' demonization and victimisation of the 'alien,' dehumanisation of the 'other,' inuring people to acts of extreme cruelty, leading people to a taste for savagery, desire for the extermination of the 'outgroup.' Using this scale, India seems well advanced in inhuman monstrosities.
Sporer, an expert in forensic and criminal psychology at the University of Giessen, explained to the court that social factors can play a significant impact on the response of a witness attempting to identify a suspect, with marked differences when the suspect was "outgroup" or "ingroup," meaning from outside or inside the witness's social group respectively.
The former motivation is generally called ingroup favoritism; the latter is referred to as outgroup derogation.