Nonetheless, it was clear that the colonial officials were not keen on creating "an overeducation
of the masses" (p.
For example, Fine and Nevo (2008) defined traditional qualification as overeducation
, skill underutilization, and overexperience (objective over-qualification) and cognitive overqualification as perceived overqualification.
Researchers mainly from Europe consider how graduate jobs can be defined, the labor market decisions and outcomes of graduates, the determinants and consequences of the overeducation
wage penalty and underskilling, the wage return of skills, the impact of skill mismatch on aggregate productivity, and the role of work-related training and job complexity in skill development.
Maasen (2000) Overeducation
in the Labour Market: A Meta-Analysis.
Hoffman, The Incidence and Wage Effects of Overeducation
, 1 ECON.
among European University Graduates: a comparative analysis of its incidence and the importance of higher education differentiation.
, undereducation, and the theory of career mobility.
, undereducation, and the theory of career mobility: A comment and a note on underemployment.
On the one hand, the expansion of university education is understood as a phenomenon of market growth, and on the other hand, in connection with this issue, we talk more often about overeducation
, overqualification or overschooling.
1981) "The rising incidence of overeducation
in the U.
Vignoles (2000) "The Incidence and Effects of Overeducation
in the UK Graduate Labour Market," Economics of Education Review, Vol.
and job mobility: Evidence from young recent graduates in Catalonia.