Schulze shows Moore to have been writing, in the teens and twenties, under a broadly felt cultural pressure to counter the "degenerative" effects of overrefined
, European art, as well as in the shadow of the eugenicist immigration policies Kadlec and Green outline.
Given its seemingly obvious title, it took me an unconscionably long time to associate Helen Marten's Peanuts, 2012, with Charlie Brown and pals, never mind to hit online on Linus's disquisition regarding the uniformly compelling nature of all things and the translatability of overrefined
carbs into vim and vigor.
Vivien Jones has noted how the conduct book genre "constructs female identity in imagined contention with anti-social, deviant or extreme, forms which its powerful example then exorcises: the irresponsible, the overrefined
, the ungoverned, the under- or over-educated." (29) Lennox's Countess is an example of this construction within a work of fiction and, as I hope to show, the virtues she relies on--found again and again in the conduct books of the age--were what legitimated a woman's acting on her inclination.
Phoebe's failure to appreciate "something too fine and delicate" in Clifford suggests an aversion to what seems effete, overrefined
, or unnatural.
The material here is not particularly easy to work with: despite being able to claim the honor of having coined the modern critical phrase "amour courtois" Paris was famously partial to the epic over later supposedly decadent and overrefined
genres such as romance and courtly poetry, and he did nothing to hide his coolness to the idea that most medieval literature had any esthetic value or complexity.
Quoting from his own De ratione, he reasserts that "abstract" languages such as Greek and French, by making their speakers "overrefined
" ("assottigliati;" "affilatissimi"), risk making them "incapable of great work" ("rendono inabili ad ogni grande lavoro" SN 159), and he even shifts the faults of obscurity, which Bouhours had attributed to Italian, to French.
As for the nineteenth-century incarnation of this discourse, its culmination came, in England at least, with the "Generation of 1914" and its "flight from modernity" (in Mosse's words), which was driven in large part by a desire to reclaim an untainted virility from a society that was perceived as "weak, effeminate, and overrefined
." The tense coexistence within the masculine paradigm of both dispassionate self-restraint and the aggressive masculinity of Nietzschean vitalism, combined with the association of resurgent individual masculinity with rejuvenated national strength, resulted, of course, in a tragedy of staggering proportions.
Jaritz' famous Schriftarchaologie (1967), albeit with an overrefined
Gulliver would give some Yahoo energy to the overrefined
Houyhnhnms of Europe--and maybe get some patience and subtlety in return.
In using style to mark literary property--as opposed to something like Baillie's "design"--the courts supported precisely that sort of overrefined
literary production Baillie sought to revise.