Topoisomerases regulate the topology of DNA and untangle for instance knots and overwound
stretches of a genome by cutting and reconnecting the DNA sequence.
During semiconservative replication, the replisomal machinery at the advancing replication fork forces the intertwined DNA strands ahead of it to become overwound
or positively supercoiled.
Their main function is to untangle DNA when it becomes overwound
, a common occurrence that can interfere with key biological processes.
When the measurement is over, the band is overwound
so that the "clean" (i.e.
The somewhat anti-mechanistic behaviour of Kneeshaw when he overwound
a model train in class had had a pronounced effect on the course of Olivero's life; he recollected, "[w]hen that spring snapped, something snapped in my mind.
This is traditionally achieved through the use of a sliding flange that allows the spring to slip, thus avoiding the movement becoming overwound
. However, this traditional system allows the build-up of harmful debris inside the winding barrel as the flange releases the excess energy of overwinding during longer periods, especially when a person is particularly active.