Animals were assumed to be virgin when as isolated females they failed to oviposit
in the laboratory.
At the moment the observations were started the content of each colony was as follows: QRC-1 comprised a queen, 20 workers, 26 pupae, 26 larvae and six egg cells; QRC-2 consisted of a queen, 30 workers, 14 pupae, 12 larvae and five egg cells; QLC-1 was started with 45 newly emerged workers, 35 pupae, ten larvae and 14 egg cells removed from other colonies maintained in the laboratory; the largest worker present became the false queen and started to oviposit
when she was ten days old and, QLC-2 was a queenright colony that became orphan due to the death of the queen; this colony comprised 87 workers, one larva and six egg cells, and the largest worker present replaced the queen; this worker had emerged in the presence of the queen and had started to oviposit
when she was 26 days old.
Adults emerge after 10-14 d and return to their host plants to mate and oviposit
Full sib pairs were allowed to mate and oviposit
for 72 h.
Studied species of Polyatax oviposit
in the mantle and foot epithelia of their hosts.
This large body of work has shown that the location at which mosquitoes oviposit
may be chosen based on microhabitat conditions such as the general type of container (Dieng et al.
These analyses suggest that burrow-nesting females move among potential nest sites and eventually oviposit
when they find a burrow with lower thermal variance (but with a similar mean temperature) than the sites they have previously sampled but rejected.
Early theoretical work postulated that the realized lifetime reproductive success of parasitoids was limited by the time available to locate hosts and oviposit
Conversely, favorable soil moisture conditions may cause females to oviposit
and optimize reproductive success (Ward & Rogers 2007).
Female moths that have overwintered as adults oviposit
onto the expanded leaf petioles surrounding unopened umbels or sometimes onto the expanded leaf petioles on vegetative plants, and larvae move among plant parts during development (Thompson 1983).
In contrast, females oviposit
every year in southern populations (Nagel, 1977).
on sticks and the undersides of rocks; egg masses are estimated to hatch 30-45 d later (Elliott et al.