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(a) Serial Peak RT Peak Compound number (min) area (%) detected Major group 1 4.472 0.94 Pentanone, Synthetic 4-hydroxy-4-methyl intermediate 2 11.561 2.11 1,2,4- Aromatic Trimethylbenzene hydrocarbon 3 21.586 10.11 Citronellal Monoterpenoid 4 31.599 2.26 Citronellol Aromatic isobutanoate ether 5 32.338 3.87 2-Pyridinethione Organic sulfur compound 6 55.638 16.36 Hexadecanoic Aliphatic acid acids 7 57.858 1.52 Thio sulfuric Sulfur acid oxoacid 8 61.176 19.17 9,12-Octadecadienoic Essential acid fatty acids 9 61.714 4.69 Benzenemethanol< Phenolic 4-hydroxy- > alcohols Ipsdienol 10 65.348 19.37 Hexalactone Cyclic <gamma-> esters Decalactone <gamma-> 11 67.053 1.10 No matches -- found 12 41.47 0.31 Unknown -- (a) Serial number CAS number Mol.
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) directed against the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH-E2) which is a member of the inner mitochondrial membrane-expressed oxoacid dehydrogenase complex, and ketoglutarate dehydrogenase are present in 95% of the patients3.
The oxoacid is a weak acid (p[K.sub.a] = 5.77 at 40[degree]C in aqueous solution) [22], and the undissociated form of the substrate can be taken as the only form in acidic media.
Thus the 2 oxoacid dehydrogenases--pyruvate dehydrogenase, branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase and glycine decarboxylase dysfunction in Neanderthals and autism can contribute to neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative, cancer, autoimmune disease and metabolic syndrome.
The top affected pathways (e.g., electron transport chain and glucose activation of insulin secretion), molecular functions (e.g., oxidoreductase activity), biological processes (e.g., oxoacid metabolic process, and cellular catabolic process, cellular ketone metabolic process), and diseases (e.g., Leigh disease, Leigh syndrome) are related to mitochondria further confirming that trans-10, cis-12-CLA feeding affected hepatic mitochondrial functions.
This is associated to the loss of more reactive aliphatic chains, which are replaced by heteroatoms from the oxoacid. Other authors [31] suggest that the pretreatment of activated carbon with a low concentration of HN[O.sub.3] (as in this work) removes the impurities blocking the pore channels.
tBHP is able to inhibit Complex I-driven respiration in mitochondria, as well as some oxoacid dehydrogenases [24-26].
For example, >90% of individuals with PBC have autoantibodies directed against the E2 subunits of mitochondrial oxoacid dehydrogenases [3, 41, 42].
The breakthrough research is outlined in "An Interstellar Synthesis of Phosphorus Oxoacids," authored by UH Manoa graduate student Andrew Turner, now assistant professor at the University of Pikeville, and UH Manoa chemistry Professor Ralf Kaiser in the September issue of Nature Communications.