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n. paquigiria, circunvoluciones gruesas en la corteza cerebral.
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Cortical malformations may include cortical thickening, pachygyria lissencephaly, microgyria, schizencephalyhypoplasia of the corpus callosum.
* Selected congenital brain anomalies: intracranial calcifications; cerebral atrophy; abnormal cortical formation (e.g., polymicrogyria, lissencephaly, pachygyria, schizencephaly, gray matter heterotopia); corpus callosum abnormalities; cerebellar abnormalities; porencephaly; hydranencephaly; ventriculomegaly/hydrocephaly.
Other findings were seen in 22% cases--these included arachnoid cyst, basal ganglia edema, benign cerebellar tonsillar ectopia, calcified granuloma suggestive of ependymal cyst/choroid plexus cyst, choroid plexus cyst, confluent hyperintensity, cyst, diffuse cerebral atrophy, diffuse meningeal enhancement, gliotic changes, hyperintensities, ischemic patches suggestive of cerebral malaria, mesial temporal sclerosis, mild PVL, old infarct with gliosis, pachygyria, pansinusitis, postictal edema/ischemic changes, and viral encephalitis in one case each, and prominent CSF space in two cases, respectively.
The Pachygyria in which there are fewer gyri and they are abnormally broad and flat was noted in one patient.
Other important manifestations include lissencephaly, pachygyria, cortical atrophy, ventriculomegaly, subcortical calcifications, ocular abnormalities, and arthrogryposis.
Cerebellar hypoplasia was present in neonates 1 and 2 (Figure 1, panel E) and pachygyria in neonate 3 (Figure 1, panel F).
The findings in the brain included focal minimal parasagittal and parietal pachygyria, glioneuronal heterotopias, neuronal migrational abnormalities, hypomyelination of central white matter, and mineralizing lenticulostriate vasculopathy with focal gliosis in basal ganglia and thalamus.
Some wide gyri were present in the parieto-occipital regions, compatible with pachygyria (Figure 3).
In this condition, abnormal thickening of the cortical mantle (pachygyria) occurs, and there is a loss of the cortical laminar pattern involving the presence of four layers rather than six (DE LAHUNTA & GLASS 2009; MACKILLOP, 2011).
Third group was of congenital malformations which include pachygyria, holoprosencephaly, dandy walker variant, hydrocephalus and agenesis of corpus callosum.