palytoxin


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pal·y·tox·in

 (păl′ə-tŏk′sĭn)
n.
A powerful toxin that occurs in corals of the genus Palythoa of the South Pacific and disrupts the flow of ions across cell membranes. It is rapidly fatal to humans in very small doses and is one of the most complex naturally occurring substances.

[New Latin Paly(thoa), genus name (coined by Jean Vincent Félix Lamouroux (1779-1825), French biologist, perhaps based on the name of one of the Oceanids, such as Pāsithoē, in the Theogony of Hesiod) + toxin.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Katie Stevenson, 34, was feverish and breathless, and started hallucinating and shaking after being exposed to palytoxin.
Katie Stevenson, her husband Mark and three of her four children were rushed to hospital by paramedics after cleaning the coral in their fish tank made it give off palytoxin, the second deadliest poison known to man.
Katie Stevenson, her husband Mark and three of her four children were rushed to hospital by paramedics wearing protective masks after cleaning the coral in their fish tank made it give off palytoxin, the second deadliest poison known to man.
During the cleaning process he took out a rock covered in coral and scraped it clean, inadvertently releasing deadly palytoxin into the atmosphere.
On August 12, 2014, an Anchorage hospital notified the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) that a middle-aged male resident of Anchorage (patient A) had arrived in the emergency department with possible palytoxin exposure.
It can form dense layers on reefs as it is a strong competitor for space (Perez et al., 2005), is tolerant of environmental stresses (Sebens, 1982), demonstrates a high reproductive capacity (Acosta and Asbahr, 2000), and liberates a potent non-protein toxin called palytoxin (Seemann et al., 2009).This cnidarian is popularly known as "baba-de-boi" ("cattle spittle") as it secretes a very viscous mucus over the surface of the colony during low tides that can shelter other marine microorganisms (Ainsworth et al., 2010).
In this series of 26 cases, samples of the suspected seafood in 21 cases were tested by the CDC or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as negative for the following known aquatic toxins: ciguatoxin, saxitoxin, brevetoxin, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, domoic acid, okadaic acid, and two blue-green algal or cyanobacterial toxins (microcystin and nodularin).
The first section discusses both general mechanisms acting on voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels and cholinergic receptors and specific mechanisms of palytoxin, maitotoxin, domoic acid, azaspiracids, and yessotoxins.
First evidence of palytoxin analogues from an Ostreopsis mascarenensis (Dinophyceae) benthic bloom in the southwestern Indian Ocean.
Moreover, in comparison with triple quadrupole instruments, the accurate mass measurement allows the correct identification of high molecular weight toxins, such as palytoxin, which can be subjected to structure modifications nondetectable by low resolution instruments [67].
Similar ribosomal RNA injuries have been observed during nonprotein ribosome-inactivating stress triggered by physical and chemical insults such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, trichothecene mycotoxins (mostly cereal contaminants produced by molds such Fusarium species), palytoxin (an intense vasoconstrictor produced by marine species including dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata), and anisomycin (an antibiotic produced by Strep tomyces griseolus), which also interfere with peptidyltrans ferase activity by directly or indirectly modifying 28s rRNA [11, 12].