Among specific topics are the official records of the Council, the revival of Papalism
at the Council of Basel, lawyers and legal proceedings in the Council, the Council and negotiations with the Greeks, and Felix V as the last antipope.
Finally, she explains why the years from 1420 to 1447 were liminal, "a time when both Rome and the Curia were caught between conflicting realities--between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, between conciliarism and papalism
, between an image of Rome as a restored republic and a dream of Rome as a papal capital" (13-14).
(3) Psychological attributes such as France's "velocita, eleganza, spontaneita" (velocity, elegance, spontaneity); Japan's "agilita, progresso, risolutezza" (agility, progress, resoluteness); Montenegro's "indipendenza, ambizione, temerita" (independence, ambition, and temerity) are thus visually opposed to Germany's "filosofumo, pesantezza, rozzezza, brutalita" (philosophic abstruseness, heaviness, coarseness, brutality); Austria's "bigottismo, papalismo, inquisizione" (bigotry, Papalism
, inquisition) and Turkey's complete lack of qualities (indicated with a zero).
It demonstrates perils of conciliarism and papalism
, of localism and universalism.
seems equally foreign to the attitude of St.
Mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages (1902-32); W Ullman, Medieval Papalism
Collins views the papalism
of the last two centuries as abnormal.
Indeed, this helps explain why Nicholas could uphold conciliarism and yet within a few years defect to the position of extreme papalism
(One might call such an attitude "cafeteria papalism
To go back to the old terminology, one might say that a serving "papalism
" would create space for a genuine "conciliarism" among autonomous particular churches.
The effect of Ockham's deployment of this interpretation against extreme papalism
is to create a large area of religious life in which individual Christians are free to act on their own.
There has been a move from preconciliar papalism
to attacks, indifference, silence.