But with Dante and other imperialists, the Donation of Constantine and the idea of the transfer of empire from the Romans to the Germans, forced both imperialists and papalists
to connect emperor and pontiff to ancient Rome.
In the push and pull of the council's deliberations, neither ardent papalists
nor reform-minded "conciliarists" got everything they wanted, but a decision was made early on that proved beneficial for the life of believers.
Ironically, many English Roman Catholics, a group with a disproportionate number of bigots, tended thoroughly to detest Anglo-Catholics.) Anglo-Catholics were themselves divided into groups of which 'papalists
' were one.
also believed that since the pope was infallible when he pronounced definitive judgments on matters of faith and morals, the irreformability of his teaching did not depend on the consensus of the bishops.
At Vatican I, in a radical breach with tradition, the papalists
handed over all power to the pope by conflating the three magisteria of bishops, theologians, and the sensus fidelium into one: the pope.
Opponents of papal power would have been anxious to place the cardinals on an equal footing with the pope, whereas papalists
were anxious to exalt the pope as high as possible.(32) Augustinus Triumphus, for instance, seemed to want an infallible pope, God on earth.(33) Easton clearly did not want cardinals equal to the pope but cardinals at the apex of the church with the pope the chief hierarch.
In response to that belief the Councils of Pisa (1409) and Constanee (1414-18) assembled to put an end to the schism, the conciliarists at the Council of Basel (1431-49) defied unsuccessfully the authority of a pope the validity of whose title was not in question, and the cardinals of the opposition convoked (May, 1511) the dissident and abortive assembly derided by the papalists
of the day as the conciliabulum of Pisa.
Peter Courtenay, Henry's first keeper of the privy seal, had studied at Padua when one of the stars of the faculty was Antonio de' Roselli, one of the highest exponents of princely power in Europe in the era when papalists
and monarchists closed ranks against conciliarists and other subversives.
By the early sixteenth century it was clear that the papalists
' increasing emphasis on a unique absolutist position for the pope made the possibility of cooperation with royalists in a joint defense of absolute monarchy less likely than had been the case a hundred years earlier.
When lay and clerical interests clash, it is the clergy who should define the boundaries between the two jurisdictions, a view shared by other extreme papalists
such as James of Viterbo and Augustinus Triumphus.
Though past councils had aimed at "moral unanimity," it was the papalists
who said that was not needed at Vatican I.