Localization of damage in progressive hydroxychloroquine retinopathy on and off the drug: inner versus outer retina, parafovea
versus peripheral fovea.
In normal reading, visual and orthographic information is first accessed in the parafovea
and processed at superficial levels before the attention is shifted to it.
The macular region, with the exception of the fovea, was divided into three zones (centre, parafovea
, and perifovea) with three concentric circles whose diameters were 1, 3, and 6 mm, respectively.
Spain et al., "Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea
in multiple sclerosis," The British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.
In our study, in the high myopic group, we found that the retinal thickness at the foveal center and parafovea
was significantly thicker 1 day and 3 days after surgery than before surgery.
(7) Histological studies of donor eyes with documented clinical signs of AMD have demonstrated a moderate, diffuse loss of photoreceptors in the parafovea
of eyes with non-exudative (dry) AMD, with a preferential loss in rod numbers, particularly at 0.5-1.0mm from the foveal centre.
Idiopathic macular holes (MH) are caused by tangential traction as well as anterior posterior traction of the posterior hyaloids on the parafovea
. (1,2) The size of these holes may vary, although those that exceed 1.500 pm in diameter are very rare.
In short, this technique involves measuring the subject's sensitivity to short-wavelength light at retinal loci where macular pigment accumulates (i.e., fovea) and at a retinal locus devoid of macular pigment (i.e., parafovea
When we perceive visual cues, we have a very small area (fovea) in which objects are in focus and a much larger, but blurrier peripheral area (parafovea
), which does not cover the entire field of vision.
IB requires that the unexpected event or object be presented at the fovea or parafovea
, and if participants did fixate on a different quadrant for the duration of the unexpected event, then that event would have been located in the periphery.
When scenes were presented to the parafovea
(2.5 away from a fixation point), Calvo and Lang (2005) found that semantic content of pleasant and unpleasant rather than neutral scenes was especially likely to be recognized.
Three regions of the retinal image need to be considered: the fovea, parafovea
, and the periphery.