Extracted nucleic acid was screened by rRT-PCR with Fast Track Diagnostic (FTD) Respiratory pathogens 21 kit (Biomerieux, Luxemburg) following the manufacturer's protocol using five multiplex PCR for viruses: influenza (InfV) type A-B, influenza A/H1N1, rhinovirus (RV), coronavirus (CoV) OC43, NL63, 229E, and HKU1, parainfluenza virus
(PIV) type 1-4, metapneumovirus (MPV) A-B, bocavirus (BV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A-B, adenovirus (AV), enterovirus (EV), parechovirus (PeV), and one bacterial pathogen: Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus
, human bocavirus, human metapneumovirus, and coronavirus were not detected in the nasopharyngeal swab specimen by multiplex PCR.
The other additional positives detected by NxTAG RPP were adenovirus (2), parainfluenza virus
4b (1), hMPV (1), H1N1pdm (1), and M.
is an RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, with four types described.
Hurwitz, "Inhibition of primary clinical isolates of human parainfluenza virus
by DAS181 in cell culture and in a cotton rat model," Antiviral Research, vol.
Another member of the Paramyxoviridae family with the same type of genome as RSV is parainfluenza virus
To the Editor: Parainfluenza virus
5 (PIV5), family Paramyxoviridae, genus Rubulavirus, was previously known as simian virus 5 because of its discovery in primary monkey kidney cells in 1954 (1).
Background: Although human parainfluenza virus
(HPIV) has been determined as an important viral cause of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in infants and young children, data on long-term investigation are still lacking to disclose the infection pattern of HPIV in China.
The project, dubbed the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, "adds to the growing evidence of the contribution of viruses to hospitalizations of adults." It also suggests "that improving the coverage and effectiveness of recommended influenza and pneumococcal vaccines and developing effective vaccines and treatments for human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus
" --also found in study patients--"could reduce the burden of pneumonia among adults," the researchers said.
The burden of infections by parainfluenza virus
in hospitalized children in Spain.
Other respiratory viruses are less common (parainfluenza virus
, human metapneumovirus, influenza virus, measles virus), or definitive attribution has yet to be established (e.g.
Influenza virus type A and B, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and parainfluenza virus
type 1-3 were investigated using shell-vial cell culture method and direct fluorescent antibody test and/or multiplex PCR test.