Instead of collecting numerical responses using a survey questionnaire, Fong collected descriptions of intercultural encounters where participants were given compliments by a European American person that include both verbal exchange and nonverbal expressions, such as paralanguage
, emotions, as well as facial expressions and kinesics.
Firstly, we will have a look at the paralanguage
used by the husband in his six pronunciations of his wife's name, analyzing the meanings behind them, i.e.
(106) Judges and juries may test apologetic words against paralanguage
(tone of voice) and demeanor evidence.
Nonverbal behaviors can include eye behavior, facial expressions, posture, body language, gestures, proxemics, touch, paralanguage
, and silence (Renz & Greg, 2000).
The two other important ones are paralanguage
, and that's how you're delivering the words, so tone of voice, and the really big one is kinesics, and that has to do with action-based, nonverbal communication.
This is for complementarity, hence, the speech and paralanguage
used for peace building during the 2015 elections were described.
Thus, the video without music maintains the singing voice and the paralanguage
of the performer who appears on the screen, the sound of the musical instruments, and the diegetic sounds of the actions represented in the image.
Language and paralanguage
both involve a kinesic element.
In retrospect, I would have wanted the students to reflect more on the cultural contexts of profanities: why people swear, how people swear (complete with paralanguage
, which means volume, tone and other qualities of speech).
Drama demands listening to tone and observing non-verbal signals (paralanguage
) so as to read and respond to subtexts accurately and effectively.
"This produces a type of stylised "paralanguage
" without a rational-logical communication of meaning, but charged with monumental original effects in the manner of a myth." (5)
The use of voice tone, loudness, intonations, speech rate, pitch, etc.