paralogism


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pa·ral·o·gism

 (pə-răl′ə-jĭz′əm)
n.
A fallacious or illogical argument or conclusion.

[Late Latin paralogismus, from Greek paralogismos, from paralogos, unreasonable : para-, beyond; see para-1 + logos, reason; see leg- in Indo-European roots.]

pa·ral′o·gist n.
pa·ral′o·gis′tic adj.

paralogism

(pəˈræləˌdʒɪzəm)
n
1. (Logic) logic psychol an argument that is unintentionally invalid. Compare sophism
2. (Psychology) logic psychol an argument that is unintentionally invalid. Compare sophism
3. any invalid argument or conclusion
[C16: via Late Latin from Greek paralogismos, from paralogizesthai to argue fallaciously, from para-1 + -logizesthai, ultimately from logos word]
paˈralogist n
paˌraloˈgistic adj

paralogism, paralogy, paralogia

a method or process of reasoning which contradicts logical rules or formulas, especially the use of a faulty syllogism (the formal fallacy). — paralogist, n. — paralogistic, adj.
See also: Argumentation
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.paralogism - an unintentionally invalid argument
fallacy, false belief - a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning
Translations
References in classic literature ?
When the Inquiring Soul had completed his course of instruction he declared himself the Ahkoond of Swat, fell into the baleful habit of standing on his head, and swore that the mother who bore him was a pragmatic paralogism. Wherefore he was held in high reverence, and when the two other gentlemen were hanged for lying the Theosophists elected him to the leadership of their Disastral Body, and after a quiet life and an honourable death by the kick of a jackass he was reincarnated as a Yellow Dog.
Accordingly, seeing that our senses sometimes deceive us, I was willing to suppose that there existed nothing really such as they presented to us; and because some men err in reasoning, and fall into paralogisms, even on the simplest matters of geometry, I, convinced that I was as open to error as any other, rejected as false all the reasonings I had hitherto taken for demonstrations; and finally, when I considered that the very same thoughts(presentations) which we experience when awake may also be experienced when we are asleep, while there is at that time not one of them true, I supposed that all the objects (presentations) that had ever entered into my mind when awake, had in them no more truth than the illusions of my dreams.
When Wittgenstein closed his Tractatus with that observation, we must also remember that, in writing it, he also undoes the silence that it supposedly demands: he writes of "that of which one cannot speak." This paralogism itself would suffice as a further definition of poetry.
To consider attentively the way in which human beings act, to gtasp the teasons of their actions, and from this to discern the best way to judge and guide such actions--this not only involves no paralogism; it in fact constitutes the only way to proceed if we want to escape the alternative of deciding arbitrarily what rule, norm, or law we will declare valid, or on the other hand renouncing to seek it.
PARALOGISM A False reasoning B Calculation of parallels C On military lines who am I?
Accordingly, the confusion between apperception and inner sense originates the paralogism of pure reason concerning the soul.
Especially the section on the realist phenomenological cogito is further elaborated and enlarged by a detailed analysis and critique of Kant's charge (put forward in the "Paralogism of Pure Reason" of the Critique of Pure Reason) that the Cogito argument is built on an equivocation of the ego cogitans once understood as object thought through the subjective categories, and then as subject of consciousness.
Here, Hydaspes lays bare the phenomenon of paralogism, or false inference, as described in Aristotle's Poetics: even if the signs themselves are irrefutably authentic, this authenticity in no logical way assures the truth of the narrative offered to explain the circumstances of their possession; to believe the proof would constitute paralogism.
To accomplish David's alibi, Christie needs resort to paralogism, or false logic, or 'the art of telling lies', a mental technique as it has been used by writers, actors and shamans for centuries.
For him, traditional metaphysics commits the fallacy of paralogism (i.e.
Had Korzybski introduced general semantics at some point over the last few decades, he no doubt would have dubbed it post-Aristotelian instead, and, indeed, general semantics presages many basic elements of postmodernism, including paralogism (in the sense of going beyond logic--which was after all first codified by Aristotle--and its established rules and formulas).