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A fallacious or illogical argument or conclusion.

[Late Latin paralogismus, from Greek paralogismos, from paralogos, unreasonable : para-, beyond; see para-1 + logos, reason; see leg- in Indo-European roots.]

pa·ral′o·gist n.
pa·ral′o·gis′tic adj.


1. (Logic) logic psychol an argument that is unintentionally invalid. Compare sophism
2. (Psychology) logic psychol an argument that is unintentionally invalid. Compare sophism
3. any invalid argument or conclusion
[C16: via Late Latin from Greek paralogismos, from paralogizesthai to argue fallaciously, from para-1 + -logizesthai, ultimately from logos word]
paˈralogist n
paˌraloˈgistic adj

paralogism, paralogy, paralogia

a method or process of reasoning which contradicts logical rules or formulas, especially the use of a faulty syllogism (the formal fallacy). — paralogist, n. — paralogistic, adj.
See also: Argumentation
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.paralogism - an unintentionally invalid argument
fallacy, false belief - a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning
References in classic literature ?
Accordingly, seeing that our senses sometimes deceive us, I was willing to suppose that there existed nothing really such as they presented to us; and because some men err in reasoning, and fall into paralogisms, even on the simplest matters of geometry, I, convinced that I was as open to error as any other, rejected as false all the reasonings I had hitherto taken for demonstrations; and finally, when I considered that the very same thoughts(presentations) which we experience when awake may also be experienced when we are asleep, while there is at that time not one of them true, I supposed that all the objects (presentations) that had ever entered into my mind when awake, had in them no more truth than the illusions of my dreams.
When the Inquiring Soul had completed his course of instruction he declared himself the Ahkoond of Swat, fell into the baleful habit of standing on his head, and swore that the mother who bore him was a pragmatic paralogism. Wherefore he was held in high reverence, and when the two other gentlemen were hanged for lying the Theosophists elected him to the leadership of their Disastral Body, and after a quiet life and an honourable death by the kick of a jackass he was reincarnated as a Yellow Dog.
Part II (chapters 4, 5, and 6) is a sustained interpretation of Kant's psychology, particularly the relationship of the "I think" to the Paralogisms. Chapter 4 is a striking comparison of Descartes's cogito to Kant's "I think," in which Longuenesse presents Kant as endorsing a version of Descartes's cogito argument while rejecting Descartes's answer to the question "What am I?" Chapters 5 and 6 go on to examine the first three Paralogisms.
2) Thought disorders reflected by speech disorders of the verbigeration type, neologisms and paralogisms, verbal stereotypes, a.s.o.
Kant's opposition is puzzling, given the metaphysical agnosticism he advocates in the Paralogisms. Ameriks highlights several puzzling features of Kant's discussion and concludes that Kant reached a clear position only in the B edition.
Ameriks, Karl (1982), Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason.
In a section of the Critique of Pure Reason called the Paralogisms of Reason, Kant proves the completely paradoxical nature of thought about reality (an inkling that, in fact, the problem isn't one of reality but of language itself).
(3) When considering the nature of the subject in transcendental philosophy, the natural starting point is the analysis of the limits of our knowledge of the thinking subject, or soul, (4) found in the Paralogisms of Pure Reason.
Their transcendent use, that is, when we apply the categories to them in order to produce them as objects of knowledge, is only productive of paralogisms (soul) and antinomies (world); the only proper application of categories, of course, is in relation to the manifold of sensation.
He examines the idea that intelligence creates existence, an existence that is nothing in itself; as he does so he examines the reality of the thinking subject in terms of paralogisms and transcendental idealism including transcendental self-consciousness.
(1) To show the singularity of Vaz Ferreira's idea of paralogisms inside the fallacy tradition, due not only to his "psycho-logic" frame of approach, but to his conception of the paralogism as a process or state of confusion anda source of mistakes that are mental and cognitive rather than discursive.
Here, "[t]he Cartesian Cogito, ergo sum is objectionable," an objection that begins along Kantian lines established most clearly in the restatement of"The Paralogisms of Pure Reason" in the second edition of The Critique of Pure Reason (1.276-77).