tamasopoensis is unrelated to the species pair and has colonized the area secondarily (Rican et al., 2016; Perez-Miranda et al., 2018), this species probably arose through parapatric
speciation from an ancestral population of H.
Population connectivity and phylogeography of the Mediterranean endemic skate Raja polystigma and evidence of its hybridization with the parapatric
onychophorans (Onychophora: Peripatopsidae) from northeastern Tasmania.
They are hypothesized to have speciated in allopatry during the Pliocene or earlier (Trewick and Morgan-Richards 2005), and they now have broadly parapatric
distributions (Trewick and Morgan-Richards 1995, Bulgarella et al.
lutea are parapatric
(Bahia and Espirito Santo versus Espirito Santo).
It is unknown why this species has evolved an 'efoveate' carapace morphology, although analogous modifications are found in species of Eucyrtops and Idiosoma, including an undescribed Eucyrtops species closely sympatric or parapatric
Abrupt and sharply delineated edaphic habitats often provide opportunities for the divergence of edaphic specialist species along contact zones through the process of parapatric
speciation (Table 1).
Sabelis, "Incomplete premating and postmating reproductive barriers between two parapatric
populations of a social spider mite," Experimental and Applied Acarology, vol.
Contrasting patterns of gene flow between sister plant species in the understory of African moist forests-The case of sympatric and parapatric
labiosus have their ranges virtually parapatric
The situation could be more complicated if formerly allo- or parapatric
species start to occupy the same area due to expansion or range shift (Swihart et al.