(1) Recent examples concerning the late medieval period include Jessica Brantley's analysis of the presentation of tail-rhyme in Chaucer's Sir Thopas, Aditi Nafde's comparison of page layout in autograph and non-autograph manuscripts of Hoccleve's poetry, and the study of the Polychronicon by Ruth Carroll, et al., which highlights that paraphs
were used as a "visual structuring device." (2) However, in discussions of medieval page design, the ruling patterns have received relatively little attention in comparison with other features.
Gray's stage piece is a beautiful illustration that seamlessly blends his background in tattooing with graffiti-writing's signature paraphs
. The rest of the set presented a (stereo-) typically "urban" or "hip-hop" mise-en-scene: a chain link fence, a city skyline, graffiti spelling out "dissent" and "hyphy" (a hip-hop movement originating in the Bay Area) alongside a neatly stenciled counter-imperative: "post no bills." The upstage-left corner of the stage was cordoned off by a scrim behind which the play's bloody business was acted out in silhouette.
Kato's study sets out to prove that Caxton's setting-copy possesses features which distinguish it to a significant extent from the Winchester manuscript, and her innovation comes out of her analysis of paraphs
(marks used to indicate textual division), an area entirely neglected by critics so far.
The 'compiler' (i.e., second scribe) contributed the book's ordinatio: incipits, explicits, numerals, coloured initials, paraphs
, indicators (item 3), a long colophon (item 33), and probably the drawing (item 49).
The balade is quite carefully presented, with virgules marked, stanzas distinguished by paraphs
, and rhymes bracketted, in a hand which Dr Ian Doyle would date to the 1420s or 1430s.(3) The writer, who was most probably a Canterbury cleric, may have known the whole Male Regle and excerpted the balade himself, or he may have found it as an already separate item; but, either way, his poem is one of only two pieces of evidence that anyone knew of the Male Regle before George Mason edited it in 1796 from what is now MS HM 111.(4) The intention of the excerptor, whoever he may have been, was evidently to extract, from the fifty-six stanzas of Hoccleve's original, a moral balade of the sort popular in England at the time.
The text is divided by infrequent red paraphs
and red-slashed capitals and looks plainer than unit 2.
Within the body of the texts themselves, paraphs
are used to distinguish the beginning of chapters and items in lists.
Items 4 and 5 (quires d-i) have a red incipit; red oneline and two-line capitals; red barrettes and paraphs
; black catch-words; Item 6 has red and blue capitals and 'Psalmus' and 'Oracio' in red; and a two-line blue capital with red penwork; Item 7 has red frames for the ladders, the words celum and infernus in red; Item 8 has the word ihesus written in gold, a gold two-line capital on what may have been a blue ground (now smudged), some black capitals touched with red, English and Latin subheadings in red and red one- and two-line capitals; Item 9 is undecorated but space has been left for a twoline capital s; Item l0 has a two-line blue capital with red penwork, as does Item 11, which also has Latin prayers and English instructions in red and blue one-line capitals.
As can be seen in the BLDM color facsimile, this ink matches the rest of the red ink on the page: the capitals C, J, and P; the paraphs
; and the compartmented square that illustrates a charm against wounds.
Furthermore, the rendering of Markham's name does not bear the extravagant ascenders or paraphs
that Franciscus would surely have applied to it in such a circumstance.
The English verse is printed in black with red paraphs
(instead of red with black paraphs
), but otherwise the text and illustrations are identical.
4-6), the romance is laid out in two columns of continuous prose beneath a single-word, centered, running headline, "Melusyne." The text is structured by means of numbered chapter titles, capital initials of assorted sizes and designs, paraphs
, decorative line fillers, and illustrations of differing sizes.